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Cannabis 101

Cannabis Uses and Varieties | Cannabis Training University

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The amount of cannabis uses and varieties there are is astounding. When it comes to cannabis there are so many therapeutic effects and relief associated with the plant.

Cannabis Uses

Cannabis stalks and seeds are used to make paper, rope, food, oils, fabrics and clothing.

The leaves and flowers of cannabis are commonly used for relief in the following forms:

  • Medicinal
  • Therapeutic
  • Spiritual

The plant itself produces trichomes, or gland heads that provide protection from insects by being intoxicating and sticky.

Highly sought after psychoactive and medicinal compounds in cannabis are located in the trichomes. Trichomes contain oil and within the oil there are over 125 different terpenes and cannabinoids. The cannabinoids and terpenes are responsible for the psychoactive effects, smell, and flavor of the cannabis.

Varieties of Cannabis

field of cannabis plants, cannabis uses and varieties
Cannabis Plants

Some of the most commonly discussed and studied varieties of medical marijuana include:

THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, is the most widely talked about of all the cannabinoids. THC can have a profound effect on behavior, including mood, appetite, sleep, and energy.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is non-psychoactive and has been found to provide relief from:

  • Anxiety
  • Inflammation
  • Convulsions
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Loss of appetite

More and more states are allowing the use of high CBD strains for medical purposes since it has little or no psychoactive effects on the user.

Cannabinol has some psychoactive effects although much less than THC. Has been found to help people suffering from seizures. It is commonly used to help patients with glaucoma since it can decrease intraocular pressure.

Cannabichromene has a calming effect and helps people who suffer from chronic pain.

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Cannabigerol (CBG) helps lower intraocular pressure, provides a calming effect, and is mainly found in strains of cannabis with a low amount of THC. CBG, along with CBD, is being widely studied currently for its ability to help counteract the spreading of cancerous tumors.

Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) is currently being used in clinical trials for relief for those inflicted with Type 2 diabetes.

Cannabis Strains

Sativa: Tall, long thin serrated leaves, widely spaced branches

Indica: Short, bushy, faster to finish growing than Sativa.

Hybrids: Hybrids are the most commonly found type of cannabis today in North America. Hybrids are crosses between Indica and Sativa strains, and sometime ruderalis as well.

Cannabis Ruderalis: Not as commonly found as Sativa and Indica. Grows naturally outdoors in cold climates in many areas of the world.

Therapeutic Effects of Cannabis Strains

Cannabis sativas are typically used for daytime use since they can cause energizing feelings. They are also loved for their ability to increase ones mood, as well as help tap into the creative part of the brain. Sativas also decrease depression, provide relief from headaches, ease feelings of nausea, and helps those who are having trouble eating due to a decrease in appetite.

Cannabis indicas are well known as relaxants, and therefore are commonly used at night as a sleep aid. Indica strains also cause a decrease in anxiety, help handle and alleviate chronic pain and inflammation, and assist with relief from intraocular pressure for those with glaucoma.

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There are literally thousands of medical conditions that cannabis has been proven effective for. Cannabis is even more widely effective than aspirin, and without any of the associated side effects.

Here is a brief list of the most common conditions that cannabis can help alleviate the symptoms of:

  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Anorexia
  • AIDS
  • Arthritis
  • Asthma
  • Brain Injury
  • Cachexia
  • Cancer
  • Crohn’s Disease
  • Depression
  • Eating Disorders
  • Epilepsy
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Glaucoma
  • HIV
  • Hypertension
  • Migraine
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Nail Patella Syndrome
  • Nausea
  • Pain
  • Spasticity
  • Spinal Cord Injury
  • Tourette’s syndrome

To learn more about marijuana as medicine and other marijuana topics make sure to check out our blog.



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More Weed, More Problems? – Cannabis | Weed | Marijuana

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More weed, more problems? As in, if you smoke all day, everyday, your life is likely a hot mess with no hope of redemption? According to recent research from CU Boulder, the answer to “more weed, more problems” is no.

According to researchers, legalizing recreational cannabis at the state level does not lead to an increase in substance use disorders. Or even increased use of illicit drugs among adults. In fact, it may even decrease issues related to alcohol abuse.

A study involving over 4,000 twins from Colorado and Minnesota found no correlation between cannabis legalization and any increases in cognitive, psychological, social, relationship, or financial problems.

“We really didn’t find any support for a lot of the harms people worry about with legalization,” said lead author Stephanie Zellers. “From a public health perspective, these results are reassuring.”

The study, published in Psychological Medicine, was conducted by researchers from the University of Minnesota, CU Boulder and the CU Anschutz Medical Campus. The study used data from two of the nation’s most extensive and longest-running twin studies: one located at IBG and the other at the Minnesota Center for Twin Family Research.

What Are Twin Studies? 

More Weed, More Problems?

Can twin studies prove that more weed doesn’t equal more problems? Well, what are twin studies?

Twin studies are research designs that compare identical (monozygotic) and fraternal (dizygotic) twins. The idea is that identical twins share all their genes, while fraternal twins share only about half of their genes.

So any differences between the two types of twins can help researchers identify which traits or conditions are likely influenced by genetics and which are likely influenced by environment. Researchers can use twin studies to study a wide range of topics, including genetics, development, and health.

IBG stands for Institute of Behavioral Genetics, a research center at the University of Colorado Boulder. The Minnesota Center for Twin Family Research located at the University of Minnesota.

Both centers conduct twin studies and have been collecting data over the years. And both centers are among the nation’s most prominent and longest-running twin studies. They provide researchers with a wealth of data on genetic and environmental factors related to human behaviour and development.

The Problem with Twin Studies

Of course, Twin studies are not without their critics.

  1. Assumption of equal environments: Twin studies sometimes assume that identical and fraternal twins are raised in similar environments, but this may not always be the case. For example, identical twins may be treated more similarly than fraternal twins, which could affect the results.
  2. Limited generalizability: Researchers often conduct twin studies on small, specific samples, such as twins from a particular country or region. This limits the generalizability of the findings to other populations.
  3. Missing heritability: Twin studies estimate the proportion of variation in a trait or condition due to genetics. But they do not account for all the genetic variation that may influence the trait or condition.
  4. Complexity of human behaviour: Many complex human behaviours and conditions, such as mental disorders or intelligence, likely result from multiple genes and environmental factors. Twin studies may not fully capture these interactions.
  5. Selection bias: Twins who volunteer for studies might differ from twins who do not volunteer, which can bias the results.

Twin Studies Disprove More Weed, More Problems? 

More Weed, More Problems?

The researchers of this “more weed, more problems” study compared the 40% of twins who reside in states where recreational cannabis is legal to those who live in states where it remains illegal to understand the overall impact of legalization.

Researchers have been tracking the participants, who are now between the ages of 24 and 49, since their adolescence. They’ve been gathering information on their use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and several other illicit drugs, as well as assessing their overall well-being.

By specifically comparing twins within 240 pairs, in which one twin lives in a state with legal cannabis and the other where it is not, the researchers aimed to identify any changes caused by cannabis legalization.

The researchers previously found that identical twins residing in states where recreational cannabis is legal tend to use it around 20% more often than their twins living in states where it remains illegal.

So does that mean more weed, more problems?

To answer this question, the team compared survey results that examined 23 indicators of “psychosocial distress.” Including the use of alcohol and illicit drugs like cocaine and heroin, psychological distress, financial difficulties, cognitive issues, unemployment, and relationship issues both at home and at work.

“We included everything we had data on with the goal of getting a well-rounded look at the impacts on the whole person,” said Zellers. “Big picture, there’s not much there.”

No, More Weed Does Not Equal More Problems

More Weed, More Problems?

So is “more weed, more problems” debunked?

Researchers found no relationship between legal cannabis and an increased risk of “cannabis use disorder” or dependency.

For years, critics have called cannabis a “gateway” drug to harder substances like cocaine and heroin. The researchers found no changes post-legalization.

“For low-level cannabis use, which was the majority of users, in adults, legalization does not appear to increase the risk of substance use disorders,” said co-author Dr. Christian Hopfer.

Not only does this study question the “more weed, more problems” narrative, but it also shows legal cannabis’ benefit. People in legal states are less likely to develop alcohol dependency problems, including driving drunk.

“Our study suggests that we should not be overly concerned about everyday adult use in a legalized environment. But no drug is risk-free,” said John Hewitt, professor of psychology and neuroscience at CU Boulder.

While the study found no adverse effects on the daily lives of cannabis-consuming adults, the study also found no evidence that legal cannabis benefited people’s cognitive, psychological, social, relationship, or financial status.

Overall, the study seems to suggest the same thing we have before. Substances are neutral. It is the person who can choose to use or abuse them. But the drugs themselves have no innate power of control.





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Cannabis 101

Can your Edibles Expire? How Long do THC, CBD, and Weed Gummies Work?

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Edibles are a great way to take medical marijuana for people just starting. Even though smoking weed can be scary, edibles give you all the good cannabinoids without the harsh smoke or the need for accessories. You may want to know if edibles go bad before you buy them. How does THC change over time, and can the potency of edibles go away?

This post will briefly discuss how to maintain the strength of your edibles, determine if your edibles have gone wrong, and what would happen if you took a chance and ate those stale weed gummies from the back of your refrigerator.

Do edibles expire?

Even though cannabis-infused edibles are expensive and exciting, it’s easy to forget they’re still food. They still have the same limits on bacteria growth, mold growth, and going bad as foods that don’t have cannabis in them. Cookies go stale, oil can become rancid, and food will go wrong.

For a long shelf life, edibles need the same preservatives as processed foods. After all, they still follow the same rules about food safety. Even though cannabis has antimicrobial and antibacterial properties, this doesn’t change much about the other ingredients or how long they last.

Since marijuana is now legal and regulated, its products have more sell-by, best-by, and expiration dates. Just like at the grocery store, these can tell you when a product might start to taste funny or when it might make you sick.

Cannabinoids need fats like oil and butter to get into your body better when you eat them. Some fats, however, can last longer, while foods made with dairy or eggs will go bad over time. When food is exposed to water, mold can grow on it.

If you are still trying to determine when an edible will go bad, look at the date on the non-cannabis version or the natural shelf life of the ingredients.

If you want to stock up on edibles, you should also know that they can lose their potency over time. CBD doesn’t suddenly become poisonous, but THC can lose some of its psychoactive effects over time. This is why you bought those magic brownies or weed gummies in the first place.

Do THC Gummies Have a Shelf Life?

You can take cannabis-infused gummies and hard candies at any time. Sugar, gelatin, and water are used to make gummies. Even gummies made with beeswax could last long since beeswax doesn’t usually “go bad.”

Individually wrapped candies also have a longer shelf life because they aren’t exposed to water or germs, which can cause mold and bacteria to grow.

Most gummies don’t go wrong, but mold can still grow. Keep an eye out for changes in color, graininess, dryness, and mildew.

How long do gummies that you can eat last?

Gummies candies can last long because they are made from water, sugar, and gelatin. Different candies have different recipes, which can change when they go wrong.

The shelf life of classic gummy sweets ranges from six months to a year or even longer. Cannabis products are usually kept in airtight containers, so if you keep your edible gummies in a cool, dark place, they could last much longer.

When you open a package of gummies, you expose them to oxygen and bacteria, making them go bad faster than if they had never been opened. Remember that when you open packages and touch unopened candy with your hand, you expose it to microbes that can make it go bad faster.

How long do cookies that you can eat last?

Milk and eggs are used to make edible cookies, which makes them much more likely to go wrong. Cookies that have just been baked only last about three days before they get moldy or make you sick.

Preservatives can make this time last longer, and most foods have them. It’s best to go by the “best by” date on the package of cannabis cookies to avoid getting sick.

Does the potency of edibles go away after a year?

THC degrades and has a shelf life, so that edibles may lose their potency over time. About a year is how long it takes for THC to break down enough to lose its effects, but sometimes it can break down even faster. Cannabinoids can last for up to 2 years if they are correctly stored. But THC has a lot of enemies that can speed up how it breaks down.

Oxygen is the worst thing for THC because it is more likely to turn into cannabinol (CBN). When THC turns into CBN, it loses some of its psychoactive effects, but CBN can still make you feel a little happy or calm.

The speed at which your edibles lose their potency is also sped up by heat and light. Keep food in a cool, dark, and dry place. Please keep them in their original packaging as much as possible and only open the package if you plan to eat the contents within the next three to six months.

Can we freeze edibles?

If you want to keep your THC edibles for a long time, you can freeze them to keep their potency and keep them from going rancid. By freezing food, heat, light, and oxygen won’t be able to get to it.

Cannabinoids do not lose potency when cannabis oil or fat is frozen, as they do when cannabis flower is frozen. Before the cannabinoids start to break down, other ingredients will probably do so. If you freeze food, the only problem might be how it tastes.

After all, if you paid good money for tasty food, you might not want to ruin its taste or texture.

Consider freezing cookies and other baked foods because their porous texture makes them more likely to be exposed to oxygen and their shelf life is shorter than other foods.

But when it comes to drinks, candies, and other unique foods, you should use your best judgment to figure out how freezing them might change how they taste.

Can you eat edibles that have gone bad?

You can eat edibles that have passed their expiration date. Cannabinoids don’t get dangerous, and you won’t die from them. But you could get sick, and the bigger question is whether they will get you high.

It’s best to smell edibles that have sugar in them. After all, candy can last a long time, and you can only tell if it has mold or pathogens by how it tastes or smells.

Depending on how long you’ve had the edible, you might eat something that makes you sick or get a mild, relaxing high from the CBN. Regarding edible expiration, food safety is essential, so it’s best to use your best judgment and throw out any food that smells or tastes bad.

What happens if you eat old gummy edibles?

It is not harmful to consume stale gummies. Because they last so long, you may only lose some of their texture or taste. There’s also a chance that the THC has broken down, and you won’t get as high, or you might not get high at all.

You could get mold, fungus, or bacteria, so keep that in mind, but you would know your chances after the first bite.

One last thing

Edibles are becoming more and more popular. Even though they have cannabinoids, they are still foods, and you should treat them as such to avoid getting food poisoning. Look at the dates on the packages and remember when you bought them.

THC goes right, but it can change over time, so it may not be worth the risk of storing edibles that may lose their effectiveness.

Before you spend money on edibles, apply for a medical marijuana card online so you can enjoy your right to medical marijuana.

Online Medical Card Team



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10 Ways Most Cannabis Research is False – Cannabis | Weed | Marijuana

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Most cannabis research is false. A bold statement. So what does it mean? In 2005, Stanford University professor John Ioannidis published the paper “Why Most Published Research Findings Are False.”

In it, he argued that most published research findings are false due to a combination of factors such as small sample sizes, inadequate adjustment for multiple comparisons, and conflicts of interest.

The paper made quite an uproar in the scientific community. While some criticized Ioannidis for simplifying the problem, most agree there is a replication crisis in scientific literature. For example, one study may find cannabis increases the risk of heart attacks. But if no other research can replicate its findings, is the study telling us anything authentic or valid?

The replication crisis doesn’t only affect sociology, medicine or psychology. It also affects cannabis studies. Leading to an uncomfortable conclusion: most cannabis research is false. 

Most Cannabis Research is False

Most Cannabis Research is False

Is most cannabis research false? The replication crisis has led to calls for more transparency and rigour in the research process. But ultimately, the only way out is to evaluate studies based on their replication rate.

Can adolescent cannabis use lead to psychosis or an increased risk of developing schizophrenia? Are cannabis consumers less likely to abuse opioid-based pain medication? Does cannabis make you a more compassionate person? Can it lead to poor cardiovascular health? Will cannabis impair your driving?

Some studies answer in the affirmative, others in the negative. Prohibitionists and public health busybodies like to cite studies that show cannabis’ negative qualities. Proponents of cannabis tend to mention the positive studies.

But most cannabis research is false, whether it confirms your bias or not.

10 Ways Most Cannabis Research is False

The replication crisis has affected studies on cannabis in several ways, including:

  1. Lack of replication: Many studies on cannabis have been criticized for their inability to be replicated. This calls into question the validity of their findings.
  2. Lack of standardization: There is a lack of standardization in the way cannabis is used and administered in studies (not to mention the strains used, their specific cannabinoid content, etc.). This makes it impossible to compare results across different studies.
  3. Small sample sizes: Many studies on cannabis have small sample sizes, which can lead to unreliable results.
  4. Lack of control groups: Some studies on cannabis have lacked proper control groups. This makes it difficult to determine the specific effects of cannabis.
  5. Uncontrolled variables: Many studies on cannabis have not controlled for other factors that could affect the results, such as tobacco use or poor diet. Sometimes, researchers won’t even account for underlying medical conditions.
  6. Limited generalizability: Some researchers conduct studies on cannabis on specific populations, such as patients with a particular medical condition, which can limit the generalizability of the results to the general population.
  7. Publication bias: There is a tendency for researchers to publish positive or negative results than inconclusive results. This leads to an over-representation of “findings” in the literature.
  8. Funding bias: Studies funded by industry stakeholders, such as pharmaceutical companies. This makes the study more likely to produce favourable results than studies funded by other sources. This ultimately creates a bias in the literature.
  9. Lack of transparency: Some studies on cannabis have been criticized for lack of transparency in their methods and results. This makes it challenging to evaluate the robustness of their findings.
  10. Prevalence of observational studies: There is a high prevalence of observational studies in cannabis research, which are prone to bias and confounding. They are less substantial than RCTs (randomized controlled trials) in determining causality.

This overreliance on observational studies means most cannabis research is false. Just as funding bias results in slogans like “Follow the Science,” which is ultimately synonymous with “Follow the Money.”

Studies Say” is the Modern Equivalent to, “The Scriptures Say…”

Most Cannabis Research is False

We’re not here to bash anyone’s spiritual beliefs. If you find solace in Holy Scripture, then all the best. But if you try and argue that your interpretation of the scriptures is describing a reality we all must follow, we’re going to have a problem.

Likewise, we won’t call out anyone using research studies to help navigate the world. You may be on a vegan diet and, therefore, like reading studies confirming the lifestyle’s benefits.

But, once you begin arguing with others that the vegan lifestyle is the only way to live, and you support these opinions by referring to “studies,” then it’s time to step back and reassess.

Both “scriptures” and “studies” express authority or provide evidence for a particular belief or claim.

Scriptures refer to religious texts or teachings considered sacred or authoritative by those who follow that faith. 

Studies, on the other hand, refer to scientific research findings. These are supposed to be based on empirical evidence and subject to rigorous testing, verification, and replication

The failure of much modern research, including cannabis research, to replicate findings is no small matter. That is why most cannabis research is false.

When you read: “Randomized controlled trials evaluating the therapeutic use and safety of marijuana are lacking, but a growing body of evidence suggests that marijuana consumption may be associated with adverse cardiovascular risks.”

You can roll your eyes. There is no “growing body of evidence” because, without RCTs, there is no evidence. Without replication, all you have is an opinion.





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