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Cannabis 101

Choosing the Best Bong Material



There’s nothing like smoking high-potency cannabis flower through a bong. Bongs have served the needs of marijuana enthusiasts for decades, and rank as one of the most classic smoking devices. A good bong should be in the collection of every true cannabis connoisseur. The typical college dormitory no doubt contains several of them.

What Are Bongs?

Bongs, also known as water pipes, come in many sizes, shapes, and colors, but all of them contain water, which effectively cools and filters cannabis smoke before it reaches the lungs. Similar to a hookah, a bong is typically smaller and designed for one user at a time, while some hookahs have multiple hoses, each with a mouthpiece. Bongs don’t employ the use of hoses. Instead, the smoker’s mouth is placed over an opening at the end of a tube through which smoke travels.

How to Smoke From a Bong

The manner of cannabis delivery with a bong differs from a pipe. When taking a “bong hit,” a match or lighter flame is held above a bowl containing ground cannabis, just like smoking a pipe—but that’s where the similarities end. When inhaling, smoke passes through the water in bubbles, then through the tube to the smoker’s mouth. Bongs have carburetors that the person smoking controls. These typically consist of a hole in the side of the bong above the water chamber or a sliding, removable bowl.

When inhaling through the bong, a finger over the carburetor allows smoke to collect within. To activate the carburetor, the smoker’s finger is removed from the hole or the sliding bowl is slid off to cause all of the smoke within to rapidly travel through the tube and into the lungs. The person smoking tends to get much more smoke into his or her lungs than when using as joint, blunt or pipe. The sudden blast of water-cooled smoke can cause coughing fits among those who inhale too much.

Smoking from a bong typically requires a hit or two for most consumers—much fewer draws than if using a pipe or joint. The euphoric rush that comes from a bong is more profound due to the cooled smoke and the large amount of smoke inhaled. Bongs are larger in size than pipes, so they have a larger chamber to hold in smoke. Most cannabis connoisseurs love their bongs and often spend quite a bit of money for good ones.

Benefits of Using a Bong

What makes a bong so appealing? Why would you choose a bong over a pipe or joint? What are its main selling points?

Some of the attraction no doubt comes from the impressive size and interesting decorations on some of them. Many bongs are well over 1½ feet long, with some being much larger. Artisan glass blowers can create functional and stylish bongs in a variety of striking designs. High quality bongs can display the artistic skill of a glass blower through inventive and original designs.

There’s also the social aspect of bong use. While many people use bongs when smoking solo, a good bong definitely lends itself to a party experience. Due to their large size, most bong use takes place indoors while friends gather together. Bongs allow users to finish a bowl by themselves or share if it’s a particularly large bowl. Some bongs may be so tall that they require a second person to light the bowl and activate the carburetor while the other person inhales.

Another appealing aspect of bong use is that most bongs have one-hit bowls, ensuring that every smoker gets a fresh, terpene-rich draw when it’s their turn to smoke.

Most importantly, bongs provide filtration of the smoke with the use of water. Water filtration is helpful in producing smoother and cleaner smoke. Some research indicates that filtration can remove harmful components such as toxins without reducing the amount of THC in the smoke.

Overall, bonds are a convenient and effective tool to smoke dry herb and even concentrates.  Choosing the right quality bong affects how it functions and how long it will last. Proper maintenance can help ensure your bong looks good and remains functional for many years to come.

What Are Bongs Made Of?

Bongs are made out of a variety of materials, each with their own advantage and disadvantage.  Here are some of the most common bong materials:

  • Acrylic: Lightweight and long lasting. These are the most affordable you can find.
  • Silicone: Super durable and easy to travel with.
  • Ceramic: Superior flavor in a variety of designs.
  • Glass: The best flavor and smoke of the bunch.

What Type of Bong Is Best?

Selecting a good bong can result in a significant investment. The least-expensive bongs are the small, acrylic, single-tube varieties that can cost as little as $20, while those with loftier price tags are usually handmade out of glass by skilled artisans. Some glass bongs have more-elaborate designs, with rounded smoke and water chambers. While single-tube acrylic or silicone bongs are more utilitarian and less flashy, they perform well and achieve the desired result. Just as either a VW or Cadillac will get you to your desired destination, one is more stylish than the other.

Let’s examine more in-depth some of the most common materials used for constructing not only bongs, but pipes as well. There are pros and cons to each of these materials, and what may be an ideal bong for one person may not be for another. The size of the bong, its design, and the materials used in its construction generally dictate the price point, but a large, fancy bong may not appeal to everyone. For some smokers, the durable and utilitarian bongs suit their needs better. For these people, the “less is more” axiom holds true.

Glass Bongs

Glass bongs are typically the most expensive and coveted by cannabis smokers. They usually produce the best-quality smoke and the most impressive appearance. The smoke is smoother and less harsh than that of plastic bongs, largely because of the ability to clean them more thoroughly. Although glass bongs allow for a more thorough cleaning, the elaborate nature of some of their designs makes the process more time consuming.

Besides the prestige factor and higher quality, glass bongs do have some disadvantages. One of the most obvious drawbacks to owning this type of smoking device is its fragile nature. Glass bongs are easy to break, and there’s no disguising the fact that their tall design makes them easy to tip over and spill—if not break. For this reason, selecting a glass bong with a wide, sturdy base is a wise decision.

If you choose to travel with your glass bong, a protective case with a snug fit will be necessary for anyone but the most careful person—and even then, accidents can happen.

Pros: High-quality, smooth smoke, incredible flavor


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Cons: Vulnerable to breakage, not easy to travel with

Ceramic Bongs

Similar to glass and with similar prestige, a good ceramic bong can have unique charm and appeal. They range in design from very simple to elaborate. More than one high school or college student has created their own fantastic ceramic bong on a potter’s wheel. Creating a good one will require some skill, and a stealthy demeanor may prove necessary when placing the bong (“vase”) into the kiln for firing.

Because their construction is usually thicker than a typical glass bong, ceramic is also a bit more durable. That said, ceramic bong owners shouldn’t have a false sense of security that their smoking pieces are rough-and-tumble devices—they definitely are not. If dropped or struck, they will break nearly as easily as glass.

The glaze on these bongs allows for creative and fun decorations and adornment. The elaborate design is only limited by the skill of the maker. A nice ceramic bong stands out and garners attention in the same way a good glass bong will. You will likely see them less often in a well-stocked dispensary or head shop, but when you do encounter them, they are definitely worthy of your consideration.

Pros: Durable, artistic designs, affordable

Cons: Vulnerable to drops and breakage, not common (limited accessories)

Silicone and Acrylic Bongs

The most common bongs are the ones constructed from silicone or acrylic. These bongs usually have a simpler design than some glass bongs but can be quite attractive. They come in nearly every color of the rainbow, which makes them stand out more distinctively than some glass bongs. Although they may lack the “wow” factor of some glass bongs, there are some definite advantages to owning a silicone or acrylic bong.

The biggest advantage to owning a plastic bong is its durability. You can tip it over all you want, with the most serious consequence being smelly bong water spilled on your carpet. Acrylic bongs are ideal for road trips and local hiking excursions. Just toss them in a bag with a bottle of water, and you’re set to hit the road.

Because of their simple designs, acrylic bongs are usually easier to clean but more difficult to clean thoroughly because their surfaces tend to retain more resin and grime than glass bongs. This can sometimes result in a subtle dirty plastic flavor if the bong is not cleaned thoroughly. Regardless of the material from which it’s constructed, a bong should be emptied and cleaned after each use to ensure the smoke from it remains clean and fresh tasting. You want to taste the terpenes from the flower, not the material from which the bong is constructed. Regular cleaning guarantees a rewarding and flavorful cannabis experience with each use.

Pros:  Affordable, variety of colors, easy to clean, durable

Cons: Lack of customization,  less flavorful than other materials, inefficient diffusion and percolation, can be made with low quality plastics

Silicone Bongs

Silicone bongs are one of the newer options on the scene. This material offers an affordable and durable option for those who want a step up from acrylic designs. Silicone material is one of the most durable around. It’s soft and malleable design is virtually unbreakable. Whether it’s a low or high drop, your bong will be left unscathed.

Because of its unique design and material, these bongs are easier to travel with. Simply bend or fold it into your bag and you’re good to go. It’s not as bulky as a glass bong and much lighter. If you don’t want to risk breaking your glass bong while on a trip, bring along your silicone bong.

Pros: Virtually unbreakable, affordable, easy to travel with

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Cons: Lackluster performance compared to glass, not very customizable


Infinitely more durable than bongs, the trustworthy cannabis pipe can experience lots of knocking and dropping without showing any sign of damage. Pipes are made from a very large assortment of materials. Not only are glass pipes widely available, but pipes with wood and silicone in their design are as well.

Metal pipes and glass pipes are extremely popular and durable for obvious reasons. They also produce the cleanest smoke because of the ability to clean them thoroughly. There is little risk of breaking or wearing out a metal pipe. Usually the only need to replace them occurs after their owners lose them. Glass pipes can break, but they usually consist of thick glass that is somewhat durable. There is prestige in owning a good glass piece. As long as they’re kept reasonably clean, these pipes will consistently produce thick, clean smoke.

How to Choose the Right Bong For You?

As you can see, there are many bong materials you can choose from. Each offers a unique advantage over the other. Ultimately, it’s up to you which one fits your needs and lifestyle. Is deer searching for a bong, here are a few tips to keep in mind:

  • Size Matters: Bigger isn’t always better. The size of your bong affects your overall experience. For instance, a new user might get overwhelmed by smoking from a tall bong. If you’re always on the go, a small bong is the perfect size to fit in your backpack and provide you with hits wherever you go. For the connoisseur or those who need a large dose of cannabis, a larger bong is the right choice for those big hits.
  • Durability: Consider your lifestyle and how vulnerable your bong will be to drops and breakage. If you’re known to bump into furniture or have a clumsy streak, your best bet is to stick with silicone or acrylic bongs. Choose a bong that has a sturdy base to keep it stable on whatever surface it’s on. If you’re not worried about breaking your piece, consider a glass design meant to reflect your personal style.
  • Filtration: Bongs differ in the type of filtration they provide. For instance, percolators in a bong help cool and filter the smoke. Consider the different types of percolators available including honeycomb percs to showerhead percs. While some percs can provide superior filtration, it can increase the drag. That means you will have to inhale more forcefully compared to no filtration.
  • Maintenance: Maintenance and Care should be considered when choosing a bong material. Over time, resin builds up in the chamber, bowl, and elsewhere. Tall bongs with several percolators are functional but can be difficult to clean compared to a smaller and simpler piece. Consider investing in an ash catcher to contain the ash, increase filtration, and reduce cleanup time.

Final Thoughts on Bong Materials

There’s no one single material that produces a superior bong or pipe, and there are pros and cons to all of the various materials used in their construction. All smokers must evaluate the qualities that define a superior smoking device for their individual needs and purchase wisely based on that criteria.

Interested in learning more about the industry? Enroll in Cannabis Training University’s online cannabis courses. Our courses take you through every aspect from growing to cooking to extractions and more. Affordable, convenient, comprehensive, and renowned. CTU is the best place to earn your stripes. 

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Cannabis 101

How Medical Cannabis Benefits Your Health




Cannabis, a medicine used to improve overall health and well-being, has existed for a decade. Medical marijuana is becoming more popular in the wellness industry as people look for natural ways to improve their overall health and way of life. Medical marijuana is a phenomenal plant with incredible potential for treating many medical conditions. Cancer, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and HIV/AIDS are a few examples. The dosage of marijuana is highly versatile. If you take the correct dosage, it can deliver exceptional benefits.
Medical marijuana lets people skip over-the-counter medicines in favor of natural chemicals that work with the body’s chemistry to make people healthier.

Cannabis is healthier than prescription medications.

Most people think marijuana is better than prescription medicines because it works with the body’s natural systems. The body’s Endocannabinoid System (ECS) makes cannabinoids that are similar to those in cannabis.
Anandamide (the “joy” or “happiness” chemical) is similar to a natural form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). It means that our bodies are much more open to and responsive to the natural chemicals in marijuana than the artificial chemicals in prescribed medicine.
Most pills have side effects, which are signs that our bodies can’t handle how strong they are. Because the chemicals in medical marijuana are identical to the cannabinoids that our bodies generate naturally, our bodies are better able to digest and break them down.

How marijuana is sufficient to treat numerous health problems

Cannabis can encourage a restful night’s sleep.

Sleep is essential to our overall health and well-being. Consistently inadequate sleep is terrible for a person’s physical and mental health because it can make chronic pain, weight gain, and diabetes worse.
Cannabis includes more than 100 cannabinoids and 200 terpenes, which can be dosed according to each individual’s needs. Cannabinol (CBN), often called the “sleepy cannabinoid,” is attractive to people who have trouble falling asleep. Cannabinol is made by mixing THC with terpenes like myrcene, linalool, and humulene. It helps people who have trouble sleeping get a good night’s sleep.

Medical Marijuana for Pain and Inflammation

Patients with long-term pain can get a medical marijuana card in most states. Cannabis is a well-known anti-inflammatory that reduces swelling and alleviates pain. The pain could be caused by arthritis, chronic pain, multiple sclerosis (MS), or an injury from sports. Regardless of the source of pain, medical marijuana is effective. It is a great way to live healthier and improve overall health.

Medical cannabis is more effective in treating digestive disorders

Digestive problems are bad for a person’s body and can also be terrible for their mental health because they can’t enjoy life as much. More and more people are diagnosed with irritable bowel disease and other digestive illnesses, like Crohn’s disease. Early research on using medical marijuana to treat GI problems has been up-and-coming, with symptoms worsening or going away.
The gut contains the second-most cannabinoid receptors after the brain and spinal column. When cannabis receptors are turned on in the stomach, peristalsis and acid production decrease, making it easier to eat, This also reduces inflammation caused by IBD.

Mental Wellness and Medical Cannabis

When people with anxiety and depression use cannabis, their mood often gets a lot better, and their anxiety level decreases. After taking prescribed medicines that don’t work, have harmful side effects, or are so strong that they make it hard to feel anything, good or bad, many people turn to medical cannabis. It isn’t the case with marijuana, though, because it can be changed to fit the user’s needs.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is significantly more effective at alleviating anxiety. Mentally ill individuals should generally avoid THC. However, it is permissible to take it in moderate quantities. Those with schizophrenia or bipolar illness should avoid consuming THC. Low amounts of THC are stress-relieving. However, higher doses can induce anxiety and paranoia. Low levels of tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) are antipsychotic, but higher levels are psychedelic. Compared to THC’s more calming effects, THCV can have a more “up” or “energetic” impact, which could make it practical for treating depression.

Is it legal to consume medical marijuana?

Yes, but in most states, you need a medical marijuana card to purchase cannabis legally. Even in states where marijuana is legal, we recommend getting a Medical Marijuana Card. A medical marijuana card offers you access to better products, more lenient limits on how much you can have, the option to grow your marijuana, and, in some places, better legal protections.
When medical marijuana is sold at approved dispensaries, it is often correctly labeled and more closely watched. It makes getting the right amount of medicine easier, which is vital for a healthy lifestyle when using medical marijuana.

Where one obtains a medical marijuana card

(Online Medical Card) The ultimate platform for all your marijuana-related requirements.
We can give you an online marijuana card through telemedicine in less time and without having to make an appointment or leave the comfort of your own home. The market is filled with many scams about medical marijuana cards. It is essential to read customer reviews about service authentication and reliability. (Brand name) has customers in many states who are 100% happy, so it’s easy for you to get everything you need for your marijuana card through a simple process.

What Online Medical Card provides

A simple and safe online procedure

Forget about appointments and offers that are burdensome. Pick up the phone and dial a number, or contact us through a computer or tablet, and within a minute, you will be connected with a marijuana doctor. Respond to a few questions and wait for the approval.

Rapid Approval in Less Than 10 Minutes

After approval, you will get your doctor’s recommendation and instructions on accessing medical cannabis through email. Within 3–5 days of receiving the approval email, you will receive a printed copy of your online recommendation card via regular post.

Same-day access to cannabis

You can use your medical cannabis card at any dispensary in California, order delivery from a nearby dispensary online, or grow your plants at home. Our online customer support team can assist you once you have completed the evaluation!

The card is valid for a year.

You will receive a one-year medical marijuana recommendation from a licensed physician. You can renew it online with NuggMD when it expires!

Instant Electronic Copy

You will immediately receive a PDF of your medical marijuana card through the mail. Your formal cannabis recommendation (signed by a physician) and MMJ card will arrive via postal service.

24/7 Online Availability

On our website, dispensaries can verify the validity of your cannabis card 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, and our live-chat expert is accessible day and night, 10 a.m. to 10 p.m., to assist with any other concerns.

Your privacy is safeguarded.

According to HIPAA law, all patient records are wholly protected and preserved anonymously. Nothing you provide will ever be made public.
Secure Credit Card Payment

The secure payment processor of NuggMD takes both Visa and Mastercard, and you will only be charged if the doctor gives their approval. If not, your consultation is complimentary!

Benefits of having a Medical Marijuana Card

Access for Patients Under 21

Patients over the age of 21 can forego the medicinal marijuana card. However, patients under 21 must obtain a recommendation to consume cannabis legally.

Increased possession limitations

Medical marijuana patients can purchase up to 8oz of flower instead of only 2 oz for recreational users. While a letter of recommendation alone will typically not earn you a discount, the MMIC will. The MMIC will save you around 7 to 10 percent of sales tax at any California dispensary.

Purchase Any Items

Medical marijuana users can use more exotic strains and edibles with higher THC levels than recreational users.

Visit More Dispensaries

Many local municipalities permit medical marijuana but not recreational use. With a medical marijuana card, you can enter any business in your area that the Bureau of Cannabis Control licenses.

Get Your  Medical Cannabis Card in Three Simple Steps.


Fill out a 30-second, confidential questionnaire. It will be reviewed by one of our accessible medical marijuana doctors.


Our physicians are well-versed in the medical applications of cannabis. Your cannabis evaluation will be as lengthy or brief as you require, so don’t hesitate to ask questions!


Your recommendation for medical marijuana will be ready immediately, and a printed copy will be mailed to you the same day.

The outcome of the matter is

Medical marijuana has numerous mental and physical advantages. Anxiety and sadness are the most prevalent reasons our physicians sign medical marijuana certifications. Anxiety and depression are often side effects of medical conditions, just like constant pain and trouble sleeping.
A medical marijuana card satisfies all cannabis-related needs, including rapid access and legality. Find out if you’re eligible for a California medical marijuana card in your state today and experience a new level of convenience.

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Cannabis 101

How to Get Rid of a Weed Hangover




No one wants to experience a hangover, whether it’s caused by alcohol or weed. Weed hangovers, however, aren’t as debilitating as ones caused by alcohol. Still, they aren’t fun. Here’s how to get rid of a weed hangover in no time.

What Is a Weed Hangover?

There’s a fine line between the effects of weed and what happens when you over-consume delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). You will feel intoxicated, euphoric, and relaxed in low to moderate amounts, but THC can turn against you in high amounts.

No matter your tolerance level, there is always a risk of overconsuming cannabis. Weed hangovers can leave you feeling groggy, unfocused, and slightly nauseous, but the effects will subside over hours.

Weed Hangover Symptoms

How do you know if you’re suffering from a marijuana hangover? Be aware if any of these cannabis hangover symptoms appear:

  • Fatigue 
  • Brain fog
  • Lethargy
  • Headache
  • Mild nausea
  • Dry mouth and eyes

Causes of Weed Hangovers

Weed hangovers occur when a person overconsumes THC. The symptoms of over-consuming weed can be caused by numerous factors, primarily the following:

  • Mixing substances: If you’re smoking weed and drinking alcohol or using other drugs, you have a higher chance of feeling hungover the next morning because the effects of weed can be amplified. Upset stomach and smoke weed for smoking marijuana and medical cannabis 
  • Cannabis withdrawal: If you’re an everyday user, you may feel withdrawal symptoms if you stop for a day or cold turkey. Withdrawal symptoms include irritability, trouble focusing, and insomnia.
  • Effects of weed: A weed hangover can be caused by too high of a dose or the type of delivery method. For example, edibles are notoriously tricky to take because they can take an hour to kick in and can have effects lasting up to 8 hours.

The onset and duration of cannabis effects can be determined by the consumption method and dose. Determine the best delivery method and dose for your needs to ensure you do not feel the negative effects of a weed hangover.

Cannabis Hangover Research

Unfortunately, research into weed hangovers’ symptoms, causes, and effects is very limited and outdated.

One 1985 study on 13 male subjects tested the time perception of individuals who smoked either a cannabis cigarette or a placebo cigarette. When tested the following morning (9 hours later), the cannabis smokers exhibited residual hangover effects.

A different study conducted in 1990 tested the effects of marijuana hangovers in 12 cannabis users without seeing any significant hangover effects the morning after.


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In 2017, a survey of patients who used cannabis for chronic pain found that self-reported effects such as lethargy and brain fog were reported the morning after using weed.

As you can see, there needs to be more research on how marijuana smoking and other delivery methods can cause weed hangovers to ensure users take cannabis effectively.

How to Get Rid of a Weed Hangover

If you’re experiencing a weed hangover right now, just remember that the effects will go away on their own. There is no one weed hangover cure. Although you can’t speed up the hangover symptoms, there are ways to find relief.

  • Drink plenty of fluids: Keep water or a hydrating beverage by your side throughout your experience to avoid dry eyes, dry mouth, and headaches. Dehydration can make your head hurt and worsen symptoms. 
  • Eat a balanced meal: A healthy meal goes a long way. Fruits and veggies should make up half of your plate, with a quarter reserved for whole grains, another quarter for protein, and some healthy fats. 
  • Take a warm shower: If you’re feeling out of it, a hot and steamy shower can relax your muscles and clear your mind the morning after overconsuming cannabis.
  • Use pain relievers: If your headache doesn’t disappear, tale an over-the-counter pain reliever.
  • Take CBD: Although the research isn’t in yet, cannabidiol (CBD) is believed to offset many of the negative symptoms caused by the overconsumption of THC.
  • Drink caffeine: If you’re feeling groggy and out of sorts, a touch of caffeine, such as tea or coffee, can perk you up.

How to Prevent Weed Hangovers

Are weed hangovers preventable? Consuming cannabis does not always lead to hangover symptoms. Although the best way to avoid hangovers is not to consume cannabis, there are ways you can significantly decrease the risk of experiencing a weed hangover. 

Weed Hangover vs. Alcohol Hangover

Compared to alcohol hangovers, weed hangovers are much milder. However, they may share similar symptoms, such as mild nausea, headaches, and mental fog. Alcohol hangovers, however, can have other symptoms, including trouble sleeping, low blood sugar, electrolyte imbalance, and dehydration. 

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When You Regularly Experience Weed Hangovers

No one wants to feel nauseous, tired, and dizzy after consuming cannabis. In some cases, some heavy users experience cannabis hangovers regularly. If this is the case, cutting back and asking for help can be the best way to control and use cannabis effectively.

Although cannabis may not be physically addicting, it can cause mental dependence. Signs of cannabis use disorder include using it every day or nearly every day, experiencing cravings, increasing your use over time, and trying and failing to stop using it. 

Become a Better Cannabis User with CTU

Cannabis Training University (CTU) provides students of all skill levels with a budget-friendly, online training program covering the most essential aspects of the industry. Learn everything, from growing cannabis to starting your own business, with CTU. Enroll today!

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All about Cannabis

Does CBD Modulate THC? No, Says Study – Cannabis | Weed | Marijuana




Does CBD modulate the effects of THC? No, says a new study.

For years, both experience and research have indicated that CBD has a mitigating effect when consumed with THC.

For example, budtenders suggest a THC-strain balanced with CBD for new consumers to avoid overwhelming them.

When an experienced stoner has eaten an edible or taken some oil and feels too high – they use CBD to take the edge off.

But a recent study suggests this is all placebo.

How Could CBD Modulate THC?

CBD Modulate THC

More extensive studies will conclusively determine if CBD modulates THC. But for now, we’ll have to rely on conflicting research and anecdotal experiences.

CBD and THC have drastically different effects. THC stands for tetrahydrocannabinol, the most famous of all cannabis compounds. THC binds to our cannabinoid receptors to produce the “high” feeling.

CBD, on the other hand, doesn’t directly bind to our cannabinoid receptors. It is more like a psychedelic in that it targets the serotonin 5-HT1A receptors, which we find primarily in our stomach.

CBD also prolongs the life span of our endogenous cannabinoids: anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglyerol (2-AG).

These endogenous cannabinoids bind to our cannabinoid receptors. Researchers figure that because CBD inhibits the breakdown of anandamide in the cannabinoid one receptor, THC can’t fully bind and thus has a muted effect.

Research performed under double-blind, placebo-controlled conditions suggested CBD can reduce the unpleasant effects of THC.

Other research disputes this. But what about this new study?

Does CBD Modulate THC? No, Says Study


According to the latest study no, CBD does not modulate the effects of THC. Published in the journal Neuropsychopharmacologythis randomized, double-blind cross-over trial was thorough.

Researchers recruited 46 healthy volunteers ranging from 21 to 50 years old. They’d used cannabis before but not more than once per week during the previous year. Researchers asked them to inhale cannabis vapour containing 10mg of THC combined with different levels of CBD. 

So per experiment, they consumed a 10:0 ratio, then a balanced 10:10 ratio, followed by 10:20, and then 10:30. In other words, by the last experiment, participants were inhaling more CBD per milligram than THC. 

After each experiment, the researchers asked the participants to complete a set of tasks. Researchers measured “psychotic symptoms,” including “cognitive, subjective, pleasurable, pharmacological and physiological effects.”

For example, THC is associated with delayed verbal recall. The study said CBD did not improve those scores.

The study concludes, “There was no evidence of CBD modulating the effects of THC on other cognitive, psychotic, subjective, pleasurable, and physiological measures.”

Even going further to suggest, “This should be considered in health policy and safety decisions about medicinal and recreational cannabis.”

Yet, did this study conclusively determine these results? Even the authors admit their research can only go so far without a placebo-controlled group.

To suggest that “no evidence that CBD protects against the acute adverse effects of cannabis,” while other double-blind clinical trials have shown otherwise, indicates more to the story.

Building a CBD Tolerance 

CBD Modulate THC

This latest study suggested that CBD does not modulate the effects of THC in the short term. But what about the long term?

Cannabis connoisseurs know about tolerance. If you smoke weed daily, you build up a tolerance to THC. You can take a few days off and let your cannabinoid receptors reset. When you return to the herb, you’ll feel the effects more with less.

CBD might work the opposite way. It may promote receptor sensitivity, meaning you need less over time.

CBD may also reestablish homeostatic levels (bringing balance to your endocannabinoid system). So while it may give the impression it’s not doing anything, CBD is working with your system without producing the “psychotic symptoms,” of THC. 

At least one study suggests the longer you use CBD, the lower dosages you’ll need. Which is another way of saying: you need to build up some CBD in your system before it can work. 

With that in mind, how accurate was this new study? A short-term look at people inhaling THC-CBD vapour after a year of virtually no consumption?

And no placebo-controlled group, to boot.

Yet, these researchers want their inconclusive opinions “considered in health policy and safety decisions” about cannabis.

The Problem With the “CBD Doesn’t Modulate THC” Study

Langara College grant

Of course, the apparent problem with this “CBD doesn’t modulate THC” study is its short-term aspect, the lack of a placebo group, and the cannabis delivery method.

Cannabis is a complex plant, and if you consume THC or CBD through edibles, the body will process the cannabinoids differently.

Same for plant extracts. Were the volunteers of this study taking THC and CBD isolates in vape format? Or were these full-spectrum products containing other cannabinoids like CBG and CBN?

What would result if a participant ate 10mg of CBD edibles for two weeks straight and then smoked a one-gram joint with 25% THC? And what if we paired them with a participant who didn’t consume CBD two weeks prior? 

This is why more research is needed before inconclusive results should be “considered” in government policy. 

But the big problem with the “CBD doesn’t modulate THC” study comes down to bias.

The study says, “Cannabis users may reduce harms when using a higher CBD:THC ratio, due to the reduced THC exposure rather than the presence of CBD.”

Throughout the paper, the researchers engage in a priori extremism by labelling THC “harmful” without further discussion. It’s one of the biases built into the study. And we saw it earlier by referring to THC’s effects as “psychotic symptoms.”

But what evidence links cannabis, particularly the effects of THC, to “psychotic symptoms?”

When we consume THC, we don’t become “psychotic.” We get high. We become stoned. The fact that they didn’t use a neutral, scientific term to describe THC’s effects brings the entire paper into question.

Not to mention, English and Australian universities funded this study. Two countries not exactly known for their legal recreational cannabis markets. (Even their medical program is strictly controlled and absurdly risk-averse).

Furthermore, we have conclusive, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies that prove that CBD reduces anxiety. And since higher concentrations of THC cause anxiety in some people, it’s no surprise we have past studies indicating that CBD modulates the effects of THC. 

What Did This Study Prove?

CBD Modulate THC

The problem with this “CBD doesn’t modulate THC” study is its bias and limited scope. They created a category of “psychotic symptoms.” Then they tested this theory on a small group of participants in the short term without any placebo-controlled group.

It may be that CBD isn’t the modulating agent we think it is. Further studies may validate the conclusions of this study. 

But further research is needed. Governments destroyed nutrition science in the 20th century by accepting half-baked theories and biased research as proven facts.

With cannabis legalization sweeping the world, we cannot allow the same thing to happen to cannabinoid-based therapies. 

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