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Does this Deadpool superpower rely on cannabinoid receptors?

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Okay, out of the gate, cannabis does not make you superhuman and adding cannabinoids to your body during most diseases is not exactly straightforward. With that said, the comic and movie character known as Deadpool awoke a super slave after being treated worse than a fish during the Permian Extinction — minus the water. Mutations to cannabinoid receptors that cause any superpower may or may not have affected Wade Deadpool Wilson after he was exposed to extreme suffocation. But an entire species over some time might develop such a trait.

A shout-out must go to a balanced Omega-3/Omega-6 diet, exercise, and oxygen, mind you. All of these uniquely tie into endocannabinoid synthase, moderation, and evolution. (1, 2)

Adaptations after generations of suffocation

The short answer is simply that suffocation does not lead to superpowers. Certain reactions need enough time, such as converting CBD into THC. (3) In the case of suffocation and evolution, adaptations to stress will be minimal in one individual. Throughout several generations, however, enough time is allocated for small changes (in amino acids) to generate a noticeable effect. Imagine if you will, that Wade Wilson’s fictional persona, portrayed in the movies by Ryan Reynolds, simply represents multiple generations of one species or a clade.

After nature put life through incredible stress and torture, or acute and chronic anoxia, some species or clades found a way to survive. And we can only guess that Deadpool blazes to survive his own emotions. Joints dipped in nitroglycerin, anyone? Jokes aside, what about Deadpool’s ability to regenerate his rapidly progressing cancer and the role of cannabinoid receptors in that superpower — or rather — super disease?

Likewise, sharks are not impervious to cancer but heal rapidly; a species that survived a period of deadly low oceanic oxygen during the Great Dying. (4)

Endocannabinoid morphologies under hypoxemia

When the body is too full of carbon dioxide, the respiratory drive kicks in and induces inflammatory agents to open the airway. This process lets in more oxygen. The increase of inflammatory agents temporarily picks up cannabinoid receptors to try and compensate for the inflammatory stress. (2) Therefore, endocannabinoids uptick within vertebrates after a short period of extreme oxygen deprivation. At the same time, so does endocannabinoid degradation — unless a species finds a way to adapt and prevent inflammatory damage.

Cells deprived of oxygen, on the other hand, process glucose in a way that drives cancer. (5) Anaerobic glucose metabolism quells cancer by producing reactive oxygen species while, at the same time, it helps cancer grow. Cancer growth is simultaneously tied to cancer destruction in our bodies. And that process is partially regulated by messenger proteins controlled by PTEN genes (6) and cannabinoid receptors. Regulating the cellular metabolism of glucose is one target for cancer therapy, albeit less personalized.

Super regeneration

Anandamide, one of the major endocannabinoids, helps facilitate regenerative properties. Let’s say the endocannabinoid system is forced to evolve under pressure once more. When that does inevitably happen, will a species achieve the superpower of rapid healing and regeneration similar to sharks or even Deadpool?

Let us know in the comments what you think the endocannabinoid system will look like in the future.

Sources

  1. Stanley D, Kim Y. Why most insects have very low proportions of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids: The oxidative stress hypothesis. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2020;103(1):e21622. doi:10.1002/arch.21622
  2. Morris, G., Sominsky, L., Walder, K.R. et al. Inflammation and Nitro-oxidative Stress as Drivers of Endocannabinoid System Aberrations in Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia. Mol Neurobiol (2022).
  3. Russo, Ethan. (2017). Cannabidiol Claims and Misconceptions. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 38. 10.1016/j.tips.2016.12.004.
  4. Guinot G, Adnet S, Cavin L, Cappetta H. Cretaceous stem chondrichthyans survived the end-Permian mass extinction. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2669. doi:10.1038/ncomms3669
  5. Sebastian, C., Ferrer, C., Serra, M. et al. A non-dividing cell population with high pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity regulates metabolic heterogeneity and tumorigenesis in the intestine. Nat Commun 13, 1503 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-29085-y
  6. Lin, Y. X., Wang, Y., Ding, J., Jiang, A., Wang, J., Yu, M., Blake, S., Liu, S., Bieberich, C. J., Farokhzad, O. C., Mei, L., Wang, H., & Shi, J. (2021). Reactivation of the tumor suppressor PTEN by mRNA nanoparticles enhances antitumor immunity in preclinical models. Science translational medicine13(599), eaba9772.





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Where is weed legal around the world? Countries where cannabis is legal or decriminalized

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The summer travel season is about to take off. And, if you are a weed lover, contemplating vacation, wouldn’t be nice to have a sense of the countries where cannabis is legal or decriminalized. Greenstate has summarized this for you. There’s a good chance you and a canna-loving friend will be able to find some bud, and maybe even some 420-themed excursions in each of these destinations.

https://www.greenstate.com/food-travel/where-is-weed-legal-around-the-world-countries-where-cannabis-is-legal-or-decriminalized/



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Amending the Cannabis Act – Cannabis News, Lifestyle

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Amending the Cannabis Act? The Canadian government says they will review and amend it as soon as possible. But the deadline to begin the review is eight months passed. Scheduled for October 2021, Health Canada won’t comment on when the review will occur, only that any amending will come from a “credible, evidence-driven process.”

Health Canada also said the review could take up to 18 months. The latest federal budget promised a cannabis industry roundtable, but no details have been released. However, some remain skeptical that meetings between government bureaucrats and industry insiders will do anything except help out the larger producers at the expense of the smaller craft companies.

Forward Regulatory Plan

Amending the Cannabis Act

But will a review and amendment of the Cannabis Act work out in everyone’s favour? So far, the federal government plans to update the Cannabis Act through some regulatory changes that Health Canada will be taking the lead on.

These regulatory changes include:

  • Cutting back on regulatory paperwork “to simplify and reduce requirements related to record keeping, reporting and notifications, and to provide more flexibility in meeting certain requirements related to matters such as antimicrobial treatment.”
  • Amending the regulations to “facilitate cannabis research for non-therapeutic purposes.”
  • Increasing the possession limit for cannabis beverages (no indication of raising the THC limit or abandoning it altogether).
  • Allowing the sale of certain health products containing cannabis without a prescription
  • Amending Cannabis Act regulations to “restrict the production, sale, promotion, packaging, or labelling of inhaled cannabis extracts with certain flavors, other than the flavor of cannabis.”

Health Canada says these changes are unlikely to be ready until the end of the year.

Buying cannabis health products without a prescription is a step in the right direction. But the typical attitude of Health Canada bureaucrats is that public health and safety trump your personal autonomy. So the agency will now be targeting cannabis producers promoting terpene profiles that they’ve decided are not “flavors of cannabis.”

Why Bother Amending the Cannabis Act?

Why bother amending the Cannabis Act when the government should scrap it altogether? The entire Liberal Legalization scheme has insulted the Western legal tradition of free markets and the rule of law. 

All they needed to do was remove cannabis from the Criminal Code. We already have laws on the books that facilitate peaceful associations. Tort and criminal law provide security, while contract, property, and commercial law facilitate cooperation and exchange. Politics doesn’t need to enter the picture. Politicians certainly don’t need to draft new legislation and create roles for their already inflated taxpayer-funded bureaucracy.

The three major hurdles for small craft producers are:

  1. Barriers to entry because of the high costs of bureaucracy
  2. Arbitrary rules on some products, such as THC limits on edibles and capsules
  3. How the LPs can tap equity markets and starve out their competition who are malnourished because,
  4. Excise taxes ensure Canada won’t ever have a middle-class of cannabis producers.

Will an industry roundtable consisting of large producers and government bureaucrats solve these issues? Or will they only address the excise tax since even the larger producers send half their revenue to Ottawa?

Time will tell, but LPs and bureaucrats seem to think the roundtable will be a cure-all.

I have my doubts. If you want some insight into what this “cannabis industry table” is going to be about, look at who supports it. If you want some insight into what amending the Cannabis Act will look like, take a gander at everything else this government has (or hasn’t) done.

A true, small L, classical liberal cannabis market won’t occur until Justin’s Liberals are out of power.





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Cannabis & Hospitalization

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Cannabis and hospitalization go hand-in-hand, according to a new study. Cannabis consumers are 22 percent more likely to visit emergency rooms and require hospitalizations. Led by researchers at Unity Health Toronto, they surveyed 4,800 cannabis users over 12 months. They compared the data with 10,000 people who had never used cannabis.

Despite the observational nature of the study, the lead author of the study, Dr. Nicholas Vozoris, told CTV that:

“Our analyses are adjusted and controlled for all of these other factors, making it less likely that the other factors explain the positive emergency department visit and hospitalization finding.”

Observational vs. Experimental Research 

Among the reasons for hospitalizations or ER visits, cannabis users reported acute trauma (15%) as the most common cause. Followed by respiratory problems (14%) and gastrointestinal issues (13%).

But the study was observational and therefore unable to say that cannabis use causes higher hospitalization rates. This was a correlational study. Despite the lead researcher’s claim, this study did not test a specific intervention against a control group. All they did was look at the data on particular groups and then form a conclusion.

Observational research can give us insight into what types of connections exist between lifestyle and risks of a specific disease. But all they can do is show correlation. Even the researchers admitted as much, given their small sample size. They said further research is needed to confirm the “possible link between all-cause mortality and respiratory illness.” 

Cannabis & Hospitalization Study Bias 

Cannabis & Hospitalization

Because this was an observational study with no control group, the claim that the study controlled for other factors of hospitalization, like alcohol use, opioid use, prescription drug use, underlying mental health or medical conditions, is patently false. 

The study did not compare rates of ER visits and hospitalizations among cannabis consumers to rates among users of alcohol, opioids, prescription drugs, or other substances. The lead researcher, Dr. Vozoris, said he’s unaware of existing research comparing these rates.

Vozoris hopes this study will inform the public that cannabis is not risk-free. But what exactly has this study proven, if anything at all? 

The Problem with the Cannabis & Hospitalization Study 

Dr. John Ioannidis, a professor at Stanford University, criticizes observational study research. In his paper, “Why Most Published Research Findings are False,” he explains that “research findings may often be simply accurate measures of the prevailing bias.”

And that seems to be the case here.

There’s nothing in this study to indicate why cannabis users would have higher rates of hospitalization and ER visits.

Suppose there are factors the researchers haven’t considered. The only way to truly determine a cause between two variables is to do an experimental study like a randomized control trial. Plenty of observational studies can confirm that cannabis users have higher hospitalization rates. But, without randomized control trials, this correlation tells us nothing.

It’s like the correlation between Nicolas Cage movies and swimming pool drownings. No serious researcher would publish a paper highlighting this correlation, concluding that more observational research was needed, and then remind people that “Nicolas Cage movies aren’t risk-free.”

That’s essentially what has happened here. 

That’s why studies like this always call for “further research.” All they have to do is claim a possible connection between cannabis and hospitalization. But with observational research, it is impossible to say x causes y. If anything, “further research” will increase the number of studies claiming a relationship between cannabis and hospitalization, muddying the waters for researchers doing real science.





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