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Nearly 70% of Oregon bans psilocybin, but clinics will still open next year



In last Tuesday’s election, 25 of Oregon’s 36 counties, along with numerous individual cities, voted to ban psilocybin use, the active ingredient in magic mushrooms. These bans come two years after the landmark 2020 vote to allow psilocybin use in the state. 

The practice of “opting out” is nothing new,this happens with cannabis all the time when adult-use cannabis laws are passed at the state level, but local municipalities then ban the plant in their individual jurisdictions. For example, 62% of counties in California do not allow the sale or possession of cannabis despite it being legal at the state level. Similar bans are now in place for psilocybin in Oregon after local elections last week. 

But the news isn’t so bleak. Although access to psilocybin is more restricted and will become difficult for Oregonians living in rural areas, psilocybin clinics are still going ahead as planned and are set to open in several counties in 2023. 


What are psychedelic mushrooms and psilocybin?

Voting results for psilocybin bans

After last week’s election, psilocybin’s legality in Oregon is a messy patchwork. Here’s a map from Psychedelic Alpha’s Psilocybin Tracker showing where psilocybin is legal. (Note: At the time of publication, at least half to two-thirds of votes have been counted in most Oregon counties, but we think this is sufficient enough to get a picture of the final landscape of psilocybin legality.)

oregon psilocybin legality map
Green areas are counties and cities that allow psilocybin; red is where it’s prohibited. (Psychedelic Alpha)

Psilocybin will only be available in these 11 Oregon counties in 2023:

  • Multnomah
  • Washington
  • Lane
  • Jackson
  • Deschutes
  • Yamhill
  • Benton
  • Columbia
  • Lincoln
  • Wasco
  • Hood River

But the picture is more complicated than that. Aside from county-level bans, there are also city-level bans, and sometimes in counties that allow it. For example, psilocybin is legal in the unincorporated area of Deschutes county, however, the cities of La Pine and Redmond within Deschutes county have outlawed it. (It remains legal in the city of Bend.) Other cities have outlawed psilocybin within greater counties that allow it, so it’s important to check if it is legal in your specific city. 

Even more confusing,  though somewhat hopeful, is that some municipalities voted for temporary bans, typically spanning two years, to allow residents time to think over the matter and then vote on whether to extend the ban in the 2024 election. 

The above map isn’t terribly surprising—psilocybin is largely legal in counties with big liberal cities, including: Portland (Multnomah) and surrounding counties, as well as Bend (Deschutes), Eugene (Lane), and Ashland (Jackson).

The locations of the opt-out bans aren’t terribly surprising either, given how counties voted on psilocybin two years ago for Measure 109. All counties that voted against psilocybin legalization in 2020 have now banned it in their jurisdictions with last week’s vote. (Only 15 counties approved Measure 109 in 2020, which was enough votes to get a 55% majority and pass the measure at the state level.) 

Surprisingly, a few counties passed Measure 109 two years ago, but have now banned it: Clackamas, Clatsop, Tillamook, and Curry. Only Jackson and Deschutes counties had opt-out votes and struck them down last week.

oregon measure 109 map psilocybin
Green areas are counties that passed Measure 109 in 2020 to allow psilocybin use; purple is counties that voted it down. (The Oregonian)

Local bans not a surprise

The opt-out votes aren’t such a surprise to Angela Allbee, Manager for the Oregon Psilocybin Services Section (OPS), the agency setting up and regulating psilocybin laws and clinics for the state. 

“We knew this was coming and that these ordinances would be referred to voters at the next statewide election,” said Allbee. “It’s not surprising, knowing that we’re first in the nation. [We understand] that there’s a lot of robust education that needs to happen, about the structure of Measure 109.”

The opt-out votes are mainly concerning for Oregonians who live outside of the state’s major cities.

“It’s a hurdle for folks that want to access psilocybin services and live in rural, isolated parts of the state,” she said. “The burden is truly on the people that want to access services.”

With 69% of the state’s counties opting out, one concern Oregonians and psychedelics proponents might have is: Could psilocybin be completely outlawed in Oregon with local bans?

“It would take quite a legislative change to basically dissolve this work because it is already established in law and there is a huge interest in it,” said Allbee. “As people learn more about psilocybin and its potential benefits, and as we build trust with communities and really demonstrate that we can do this safely and effectively, I think that the interest will increase more and more.”


New study shows psilocybin can help with severe depression

More education on psilocybin rules is needed

One of the biggest roadblocks to allowing psilocybin in the state, and one of the main sources for the opt-out bans, is a lack of information or misunderstanding, according to Allbee. Many voters seem to assume that getting psilocybin will be like going to a cannabis dispensary—which is not the case at all. 

In Oregon’s model, magic mushrooms can only be given to an adult client (21 years of age or older) by a licensed facilitator at a licensed service center, and only under the facilitator’s supervision, during an administration session. Clients also have to pass a preparation session beforehand and have the option to take additional integration sessions after, to better process the experience.

Oregonians will not be able to walk into a store and buy magic mushrooms and take them where they please. This framework differs significantly from cannabis in that the consumption of psilocybin is monitored, and there is optional monitoring even after the experience.

Additionally, the Oregon framework provides licenses for mushroom growers and testing labs, to ensure the process is monitored and tracked from spore to consumption. The focus is on the client experience, client safety, and product safety, according to Allbee. 

Oregon Psilocybin Service is a department within the greater Oregon Health Authority, so the agency is approaching psilocybin usage from a public health standpoint. 

“We’re building on decades of research and the momentum of current research … lots of shared knowledge and information from indigenous communities, [and] we’re sharing from people that have practiced in the underground spaces for many years,” she said. “We also are implementing very grounded public-health considerations and making sure that we’re aligning with the health goals of our state, which is really important if we’re going to make a difference.”

There are many roadblocks ahead, but Allbee and OPS don’t seem daunted. 

“I think instead of operating in fear, we have to operate in curiosity,” she said. “For us it really means access, equity, and trying to build towards affordability, and those are all things that are going to take some time. We’re really excited to establish this framework in 2023.”

The public comment period on Oregon’s psilocybin rules is happening now through Nov. 21, and the rules will be finalized Dec. 31. OPS will start handing out licenses for psilocybin growers, testers, facilitators, and service centers on Jan. 2 of next year. Service centers are expected to open later in 2023.

Check out the OPS site for more information on the psilocybin framework and the public hearings. 


Colorado just voted to legalize and decriminalize psychedelics. Here’s what happens next

How is Colorado’s new psilocybin law different?

Colorado voters just narrowly passed Prop 122 last week, which will decriminalize psilocybin and many other plant-derived psychedelics, and set up psilocybin treatment centers within a few years. Colorado is the second state behind Oregon to allow for psilocybin usage in a regulated environment. 

Colorado’s measure is wider-reaching than Oregon’s as it decriminalizes other plant-derived substances such as ibogaine, DMT, and mescaline (as long as it’s not derived from peyote). Coloradoans also will not be able to ban psilocybin treatment centers in their localities as Oregonians have, but will be able to limit treatment centers to specific areas. 

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Do Shrooms Go Bad? How to Dry and Store Your Shrooms




After harvesting or picking mushrooms, it’s important to dry and store them properly to remove their moisture so they don’t spoil. Excess moisture will cause mushrooms to decompose and rot, and then they won’t be safe to consume. Although mushrooms can be stored wet,  we recommend drying them as they’ll keep better. Wet mushrooms need to be consumed within a few days.

Once dry, mushrooms need to be kept in a dark place with moderate temperature and humidity to preserve their life. Light and oxygen will degrade shrooms much faster, so it’s best to try to minimize exposure as much as possible..

Keeping mushrooms dry and in airtight containers will also prevent the growth of mold or bacteria, which will cause your mushrooms to go bad.

How long do shrooms last? 

Dried shrooms can stay potent for a long time, up to several months or a year if properly stored, before potency will start to go down. Wet mushrooms need to be refrigerated and will go bad after a few days.

Are expired shrooms dangerous?

Magic mushrooms, like any mushrooms, can develop mold or bacteria over time and if they’re not stored properly. Consuming some molds can cause an allergic reaction or respiratory problems in some people, so if your magic mushrooms have visible mold on them, do not consume them.

Shrooms will lose potency over time, but the old age of a mushroom won’t necessarily influence the effects you feel. If anything, they will just be less potent.


What are psychedelic mushrooms and psilocybin?

How to dry magic mushrooms

Air drying shrooms is the easiest, cheapest, and best way to dry them, and it ensures a slow and consistent dry shroom. You can also use a food dehydrator if you’re strapped for time, but of course, it’s  a more expensive method.

Air drying

Air drying shrooms takes about 1-3 days.

Drying should take place in a moderately warm space, ideally between 60-70°F, with humidity between 55-65%. Make sure to keep mushrooms out of direct sunlight.

To air dry mushrooms, it’s best to lay them out on a wire rack, so they can dry out from all sides evenly. If you don’t have a wire rack, lay them on a clean cloth and be sure to flip them over every few hours.

You’ll know mushrooms are done drying when you can easily snap the stem. If they still bend, give them some more time.

If it’s taking a while to dry mushrooms, you might consider putting a fan on them for better ventilation. We do not recommend putting them in the oven or using another heat source to help them dry, as they can dry out too quickly or even burn. A slow, even dry is best.


You can also use a dehydrator to dry your magic mushrooms, but we recommend air-drying them for a low and slow approach. When using a dehydrator, you’ll have to watch them closely.

All dehydrators are different, but set yours to a low temperature and check your mushrooms after an hour. If they seem like they’re getting close to finishing but aren’t quite there, put them back in and check every 10-15 minutes thereafter.


What are some of the strongest types of psychedelic mushrooms?

Best methods of storing dried and fresh,wet shrooms 

Here are a few ways to store magic mushrooms—and the pros and cons of each. However you decide to store them, be sure to keep them in a dark place.

Storing shrooms in airtight containers

This is the best way to store magic mushrooms and how we recommend you go about it. Oxygen will cause mushrooms to degrade quickly, and they’ll dry out and lose potency much faster. An airtight mason jar or bottle will be much more effective at keeping out oxygen than a Ziploc bag. Be sure to store them in a dark place in a room with moderate temperature, ideally between 60-70°F.

Storing shrooms in a refrigerator 

We don’t recommend storing shrooms in a fridge, as cold temperatures can damage them. Storing them at room temperature in the dark is preferred.

Freshly picked, wet mushrooms can be stored in the fridge for a week or so, but after that they need to be consumed or dried, or otherwise go bad.

Storing shrooms in a freezer

As with the fridge, we don’t recommend storing mushrooms in the freezer as cold temperatures can damage them by freezing any residual moisture. A dark place at room temperature is best.

How to store wet (fresh) mushrooms

If you can’t dry your magic mushrooms, you can store them wet in the fridge for a few days. But bear in mind, they’ll only keep for a week or so, just like any culinary mushroom. After that, they’ll start to rot or decompose and may develop mold or bacteria.

You can also try drying mushrooms after they’ve been in the fridge for a few days and haven’t spoiled.


How to grow psychedelic mushrooms for the first time

How to tell when dried shrooms have gone bad

Dried or wet magic mushrooms will have some tell-tale signs when they’ve gone bad.


Green or black mold is a sure sign that your mushrooms have gone bad. Do not eat them if they’re showing mold.


Some psychedelic mushrooms turn blue, or “bruise,” which is perfectly fine. But if your mushrooms turn any other color, such as black, there’s likely some bacteria or mold growing inside them, and they need to be thrown out.

Most mushrooms, such as psilocybe cubensis, should have light brown to golden caps and white stems. Some mushrooms have more of a light brown color all over.

Funky smell

Good mushrooms tend to have a distinct smell—they’re earthy and musky. If your mushrooms smell funky or sour, get rid of them immediately.

How to tell when shroom-infused products have gone bad

Magic mushrooms can be infused into a variety of edibles, including chocolate, honey, and more, and can also be pressed into gel caps, similar to a nutritional supplement. It’s hard to tell when these mushroom products have gone bad because they won’t develop mold or discoloration like actual mushrooms.

Mushroom edibles are thought to keep longer than actual mushrooms, but their shelf life is hard to determine with precision. So store these products in a cool, dry place, and consume them within 2-3 months of when they’re created, and you’ll be poised for success. And remember, if a product smells off, do not consume it.

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My Experience: Taking Magic Mushrooms in Goa




If there’s one place on Earth where magic mushrooms are meant to be consumed it is the sun-kissed, stretched out beaches of Goa. With palm trees hanging over you like an omnibenevolent presence, the sea glinting for what seems like forever, the sky bluer than you’ve ever seen and, of course, the sound of light trance music comfortably guiding you into a meditative state – is there anywhere better to enjoy a psychedelic trip?

Whilst the south Indian state of Goa had its hallucinogenic hayday in the 60s and 70s, this does not mean that the place has completely lost its charm and soul. Drugs are not as easy to find as they were back then and the party scene has definitely become more commercialized, but when I was offered magic mushrooms by a green-haired lady who looked like a character from a Studio Ghibli movie, I knew I couldn’t let the opportunity pass. Maybe this was the chance to experience what the hippie paradise used to be like. This is the story of how I took magic mushrooms in Goa. 


Goa is one of the 25 districts that exists within the incredibly diverse and huge nation of India. It is the 7th largest country in the world, with the second biggest population. Whilst most know India for its temples, mountains, deserts and spiritual getaways, there is also another reality. This reality is, in essence, Goa. A coastal district in the south of the country, which still has the remnants of its Portuguese colonial past.

This place has some of the best food in the entirety of India, has beaches that stretch for miles and, significantly, had a large part to play in the 60s hippie trail. This was a gigantic journey around the globe that many westerners took in the 1960s – mostly with only a VW van, some light luggage and some great friends. It was a right of passage, a chance to see the world after generations of conflict. The trip for many started in London, went through Europe, into the Middle East and deep into Asia.

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This was, for many, where it ended; others boated over to Australia. Goa was like the promised land, the light at the end of the road. Those who’d managed to get that far would sleep in beach shacks, live in peace and enjoy all types of mind-altering substances. Duncan Cambell writes about his experiences in the Guardian:

“It was possible to live for months on a few quid. A bed in a shared bedroom could be secured for six rupees a night. “Imagine no possessions” was a creed as well as a line in a John Lennon song. Fresh fish, coconut rice. Paperback copies of Hermann Hesse and Rabindranath Tagore, William Burroughs and the Bhagavad Gita were swapped… Disconnection from the west was complete”

The question people seem to ask when they wander around Goa now is: is this still a paradise or is it a paradise lost? In other words, has its time passed? It is often irritating being told by older generations how much better life was in their day. An image of an old man, sitting in his armchair, reading a copy of Nietzsche comes to mind, saying: “back in my day, no one sat around looking at their screens, they would read books and explore the world”. Well maybe Goa was better in the 60s, but at least we have better healthcare, eh? 

Goa now still has its long beaches and palm trees, but they are no longer empty. The majority of the beaches in the North and South are full of resorts and thousands of tourists, many of them more interested in taking the perfect Instagram photo rather than learning about the culture. However, not all hope is lost. The soul of a place cannot be eradicated, but it can be led astray. One writer exemplifies this perfect: 

“While Goa today may not exude the carefree nature of the early 1970s when it was a hub for hedonistic Hippies from around the world, much of the culture that sprung the movement still remains in pockets.”

That is why when I was offered the chance to take magic mushrooms on a Goan beach I simply could not say no. It would be a disrespect to my ancestors. 

Magic Mushrooms in Goa

The drug scene in Goa is certainly different in 2022 from what it was back in the ‘glory years’. Many substances were easily available in the 70s due to a lack of police authority – hashish, LSD and basically anything else. In fact, it wasn’t until the mid 1970s that the majority of recreational drugs were deemed illegal by the government, before that they were accepted. Now, of course, all common drugs are banned and dealt with harshly. You may have to bribe a police officer 100,000 rupees if caught or be put in prison. Many of Goa’s best and most beloved clubs – including Curly’s and Hill Top – have recently been closed down due to drug controversy. Goan authorities are on a dogged mission to end the reputation of the beach district as a substance tourist spot. 

However, whilst I was in Goa it was still possible to find drugs. In the north beach of Arambol it was possible to slyly find hashish or some dodgy meth that was being disguised as cocaine. However, it wasn’t what I had imagined. I dreamt of a chilled shack that sold shroom shakes and hash, but instead I found myself in a dark alleyway and could feel the fear in the dealer’s eyes; being caught by the police being a terrible threat. The India Times writes:

“In the last seven months, Goa police has seized around 100kg of narcotic substances worth over Rs 2.5 croce. Goa police have not only arrested Goans in the trade but also people from outside the state and foreigners… Ganja, caracas, LSD, MDMA, ecstasy tablets and powder, cocaine, hashish oil, heroin and cannabis are among the drugs that have been seized.”

In essence, this wasn’t what I had really been expecting. However, hope was not lost. A few weeks into my trip I was visited by an elder Indian Canadian woman with striking green hair. She was incredibly warm and comforting, I felt like I’d known her my entire life. She approached me at a beach bar in Ashwem and we got chatting. Her line of work was rather extraordinary. She lived in Goa and worked as toad venom shaman; helping people through their trip. I told her my ambition to try psychedelics whilst in Goa and within 30 minutes she’d sold me 10 grams of magic mushrooms. After that she sort of disappeared into the etha, never to be seen again. 

The Trip

I was in Goa with my girlfriend and we were pretty overjoyed that we’d finally managed to find hallucinogens. The next step was to ensure our set and setting were perfect – we didn’t want any bad vibes to ruin our trip. We decided to take them early – 3pm – this way we’d be able to have dinner in the evening and enjoy a chilled sleep. Although, we managed to buy some valium at the pharmacy just in case we found sleep difficult.

We divided the mushrooms into 2 grams each and found a perfect shaded spot on the beach. We didn’t want to overdo the amount – I mean, they looked like liberty caps but how can you ever be sure? A magic mushroom trip usually lasts around 4-6 hours, with the peak coming at around 3 hours in, which we hoped would bring us to the beautiful Goan sunset at around 6pm. 

Then we ate. They tasted awful but we washed them down with a beer. It had been a few years since my last psychedelic trip so I was full of nerves, but I was actively telling myself to simply allow the experience to happen. My intention for the trip was: to see the beauty in everything. To be honest, I realise in hindsight that this intention was a little vague. Anyway, it was hot, very hot. Within 30 minutes I decided to go into the sea to refresh but as I walked back to the sun beds everything went strange. The beach stretched out for miles and everything sounded different; enhanced.

My body was heavier than it had ever been and I felt like I needed to sit down. The trip had begun. With magic mushrooms you often can’t quite work out why you feel a certain way, which is why it took us maybe another 30 minutes before we finally realized that it was the heat that was making our bodies feel so tired. We decided to walk back to our hostel. On the way back everything felt wavey and technicolor, and each interaction with another human felt like a video game. We tried to buy water from a shop owner and it felt like we had some sort of secret. 

The peak of the trip happened in our air conditioned room. We showered probably around 10 times each just because of how good the water felt on our skin. We cried, we had moments alone, we had moments together. An entire lifetime happened in that wavey, orange room. Nothing and everything had the space to occur. It was only when the visuals began to subside slightly that we felt able to go and see the sunset on the beach.

The trip was on its way down but one overriding sense remained: beauty. The world was beautiful. The people, the sunset; everything. We enjoyed some deliciously tasty food – enhanced by the shrooms – and watched as the sunset turned to stars. Whilst the trip was no longer at its peak, we were refreshed, rid of our anxieties and issues. All there was left was to allow the world to truly be its spectacular self in front of our eyes. 

Final Thoughts

Had we found old Goa? Of course not. You cannot recreate the past and you’ll spend your life disappointed if you try. However, we’d found our own version of Goa. Whilst the overriding sun may have caused us to spend a great deal of the trip inside our hostel room, it didn’t stop the experience from being wonderful.

My intention had been to see the beauty in the world and it certainly had worked. I felt clarity. One of the reasons why psilocybin is now being explored as a therapeutic substance is due to this exact experience – people report feeling happier and clearer for months after a psychedelic trip. If I ever return to Goa I hope I will one day meet that green-haired, studio Ghibli character again but – if not – I will simply write it here: thank you.

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5 Strong Magic Mushrooms To Trip On




There are hundreds of types of psychedelic mushrooms, each with their own level of potency. Potent mushrooms often lead to a more intense trip, and each type of mushrooms can lead to a different kind of trip or experience. 

Magic mushrooms have shown huge medical potential in treating a variety of health conditions, but it’s important to know how powerful these substances are before taking them. A little goes a long way, so be sure to start low and go slow—take a little bit and wait an hour or more to see how they’ve affected you before taking more. (For more on how many mushrooms to take, check out our dosing guide to psychedelic mushrooms.)

It’s important to note that psilocybin is currently illegal in all US states except for some counties in Oregon, and soon, Colorado. It is also decriminalized in some cities and states. Below, we’ve put together a list of the strongest types of psychedelic mushrooms. 

Why does potency vary between shroom species?

Different species of psychedelic mushrooms have different amounts of psilocybin, and psilocin, the active compound that actually causes psychedelic effects. High levels of psilocybin and psilocin will lead to a more potent mushroom and a strong mushroom trip. Additionally, mushrooms within the same mushroom species can have varying levels of potency depending on the conditions in which they were grown. 


What are psychedelic mushrooms and psilocybin?

Dosage vs. potency: Which has a bigger impact on your magic mushroom trip?

The intensity of a magic mushroom trip is hard to measure. The amount of mushrooms you take and how potent they are both play a role in your psychedelic experience. Taking two grams of mushrooms instead of one gram won’t necessarily “double” how high you feel—your trip could be exponentially stronger. 

The same is true with potency—taking a mushroom with twice the amount of psilocybin or psilocin may lead to an exponentially more intense trip.

Other important factors to keep in mind when taking mushrooms are set and setting, meaning  your mindset and environment when tripping. Doing mushrooms with close friends out in nature will lead to a much different trip than doing them with strangers at a crowded party, regardless of potency or dosage.

We also encourage positive intentions going into a trip, to prime your mind for the experience and set the tone.

How long do magic mushrooms stay potent for?

Dried mushrooms should be stored in an air-tight container in the dark. We don’t recommend storing them in a freezer. They’ll usually last for several months to a year, and potency will go down after that.


Do magic mushrooms have ‘strains’ like cannabis?

5 of the strongest types of magic mushrooms

There are hundreds of types of shrooms out there, all with different levels of psilocybin and psilocin. Below, is a list of five of the strongest types of psychedelic mushrooms. 

It’s important to note that as psilocybin is still largely illegal, it hasn’t been studied extensively. As such, the list that follows is anecdotal, as many studies haven’t been done on psychedelic mushrooms, nor analyses of their psilocybin content, as of late. 

Flying Saucers (psilocybe azurescens)

Flying Saucers (psilocybe azurescens) magic mushrooms
Flying Saucers (psilocybe azurescens). (shroom360/Mushroom Observer)

Supposedly named after Azureus,meaning “azure,” or “blue”, the son of famed mycologist Paul Stamets, these potent mushrooms are usually found in the Pacific Northwest, and up into British Columbia. Azzies are identifiable by their pointy tops and hat-like caps and small stature. As the name implies, and like many psychedelic mushrooms, they can turn very blue when they’re bruised or old in age.

Blue Meanies (panaeolus cyanescens)

Blue Meanies (panaeolus cyanescens) magic mushrooms
Blue Meanies (panaeolus cyanescens). (Alan Rockefeller)

More potent than your typical cubensis, these mushrooms are named after the antagonists in the Beatles’ Yellow Submarine. True to their name, Pan Cyans often turn blue when bruised—cyanescens even means “blue.” They are tall and skinny and usually have small caps. These mushrooms love tropical or subtropical regions and are often found in Hawaii, and are believed to have made their way there from Asia. 


What are psychedelics?

P. Subs (psilocybe subaeruginosa)

P. Subs (psilocybe subaeruginosa) magic mushrooms
P. Subs (psilocybe subaeruginosa). (_Otto_/The Shroomery)

Found natively in Australia and New Zealand, P. Subs are thought to be one of the most potent of the psilocybes. Recognizable with their wide pointy caps, the mushroom is thought to have become popular in the ‘60s and ‘70s with Australian surfers, and spread around the world through hippie counterculture thereafter.

Penis Envy (psilocybe cubensis)

penis envy mushrooms growing in a tub
Penis Envy (psilocybe cubensis). (Courtesy of an amateur cultivator who requested to remain anonymous)

Easily recognizable from its phallus shape, this popular type of psilocybe cubensis (arguably the most popular species of psychedelic mushrooms), is said to be more potent than regular cubes, or cubenses. Penis Envy is having a moment right now and is incredibly popular, so much so that PE crosses are everywhere, most notably, Albino Penis Envy, or APE.

Liberty Caps (psilocybe semilanceata)

Liberty Caps (psilocybe semilanceata) magic mushrooms
Liberty Caps (psilocybe semilanceata). (Alan Rockefeller)

Small, slender, and potent Liberty Caps tend to have tiny, pointy caps. They are widespread and like wet, grassy environments in cold to temperate regions, such as the Pacific Northwest and the British Isles. They also grow in the Southern Hemisphere. It’s thought to be one of the first psychedelic mushrooms in Europe to be identified and analyzed, its use dating back a few hundred years. 

Pat Goggins's Bio Image

Pat Goggins

Pat Goggins is a senior editor who handles Leafly’s informational content and specializes in cannabis cultivation after working for a commercial grower in Oregon. When not fixing typos, you’ll probably find him on a boat or in the mountains.

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