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New cannabis laws for 2023 kick in across the US



ens of millions of cannabis consumers will enjoy broadening civil rights and access to weed, thanks to a collection of new laws and regulations taking effect this week and beyond in at least 11 US states. Voters, regulators, and lawmakers across the US enacted laws, rules, and executive orders that take effect this week from sea to shining sea. Here’s the state-by-state rundown of weed laws taking effect in 2023.

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Men Or Women? Who Benefits More From Using Weed Before Sex?




A new study adds more evidence of marijuana’s positive impact on sex. Results show that cannabis increases the odds of orgasms and makes people more likely to experience pleasure. Most importantly, the study claims that the plant could be impactful for women, helping treat sexual dysfunctions and reducing the orgasm inequality gap.

The study, published in the Journal of Cannabis Research and conducted by researchers from East Carolina University, focused on survey responses from 811 adults between the ages of 18 and 85. The majority of them identified as female and all had previous experience with cannabis.

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Photo by Goodboy Picture Company via Getty

“The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived influence of cannabis on sexual functioning and satisfaction,” researchers wrote.

Responses show that most participants, regardless of age and gender, reported experiencing more pleasure and satisfaction when having sex after consuming cannabis.

RELATED: Why Cannabis Users Have Better Orgasms & Overall Sexual Function, According To Study

A closer look at the results show that 70% of respondents said that using cannabis before sex made them more likely to experience an orgasm while also increasing their desire. 62% said the drug increased pleasure while masturbating.

One of the strengths of the study is the fact that it used subjects of various backgrounds. For example, researchers made sure that their subjects were involved in multiple work industries, had varying cannabis preferences, ages and sexual orientations (almost 25% of the participants were identified as LGBTQIA+). After accounting for factors that could have altered their results, they concluded that the sex life of both men and women benefitted from the addition of marijuana.

“This study updates the current literature on cannabis and sexuality and provides implications for improving sexual quality,” researchers wrote. “Medical implications of this study include the possible use of cannabis for treating sexual dysfunctions, especially within women.”

cannabis and sex
Photo by Prostock-Studio/Getty Images

RELATED: How Cannabis Can Improve Your Sex Life

In the case of women, the study suggested marijuana could help them treat various medical dysfunctions while helping close the orgasm inequality gap, a phenomenon that refers to the disparity between heterosexual men and women when it comes to orgasms.

“Women may be more likely to orgasm when using cannabis before sexual encounters, which could contribute to equity in the amount of sexual pleasure and satisfaction experienced by both women and men. Sex therapists could incorporate use of cannabis in states where it is currently legal,” argued the researchers.

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Bring On the Psychedelics: States Looking to Reform Policy in 2023




2020 brought us Oregon and the first legalization for psychedelic mushrooms in the US. 2022 brought us Colorado doing the same, but with more compounds legalized, and a separate pre-emptive legalization for MDMA. Now, it’s a new year, so let’s take a look at which states are looking to reform their psychedelics policies, going into 2023.

The first two: Oregon and Colorado

In the 2020 elections, Oregon put Measure 109 and Measure 110 to the voters, both of which passed, with 55.75%, and 58.46% of the vote, respectively. The first law is a measure to legalize some use of psilocybin mushrooms, and the second is a decriminalization measure for the personal possession of illicit drugs. Together they make for a full drug decriminalization in the state, as well as a drug legalization under certain parameters.

The parameters were made more clear in 2022 upon the release of rules for the new industry. For one thing, the legalization only covers psilocybin mushrooms, and of those mushrooms, only one species: Psilocybe cubensis. Furthermore, all legal use must be done in a certified center under the watchful eye of a non-medical tripsitter. Different municipalities have the option of opting out of this allowance.

In the 2022 elections, Colorado joined in as the second state to legalize some form of  a psychedelic, though Colorado went a bit further. Instead of focusing on just psilocybin mushrooms, the state made it about entheogenic plants as part of a natural medicine program, though not all medicinal plants are a part of this. It includes the compounds: psilocybin, psilocin, DMT, mescaline (minus Peyote), and ibogaine. It also sets up regulation for trip centers, but does allow administration of the compounds outside of this. It decriminalizes use of these compounds outside legal administration.

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Colorado made it so that when the measure passed, the entire state was obligated to oblige. Unlike Oregon, no individual locations have the ability to say no, making for a standard law throughout the state. Colorado also was the first state to pass a pre-emptive legalization for medical MDMA. This legalization lies in wait for a federal legalization first, and has no power until that happens. When it does, Colorado is set to go with regulations for its medical MDMA industry.

States to watch for psychedelics reform in 2023 – California and Washington

California and Washington are both coming off of failed psychedelics bills in the previous year. And both are already back with new bills to offer, both of which have been tweaked to create more passable versions in the hopes of having a better chance this time around.

California is offering SB 58 as an improved version of SB 519. SB 519 didn’t actually die like other failed bills, but instead was intentionally pulled by its creator, Sen. Scott Wiener. SB 519 would have decriminalized the possession of both natural and synthetic compounds, as well as legalizing medical use for patients in need, and mandating further research. The new SB 58 narrows its scope to the same five compounds as Colorado: psilocybin, psilocin, DMT, ibogaine, and mescaline; with synthetics like LSD and MDMA removed. It omits the research requirement.

As the previous bill passed the Senate in California, as well as its first two Assembly committees, there’s plenty of reason this newer version should also do well. Wiener pulled the previous bill because of the edits made to it, which downgraded it to nothing more than a research initiative; taking out everything else. The hope is that with the scope minimized to just the chosen entheogenic plants, the bill will pass through.

Washington is coming back with SB 5263 to take the place of the failed SB 5660. Some of the revisions to this new bill include a longer implementation time of 24 months, to make sure everything goes smoothly; greater worker protections for those administering the drugs; the requirement of group sessions for drug administration; the ability for administration outside of a service center (like Colorado); greater privacy for users; and no maximum doses under 50mg. It also doesn’t allow individual locations to opt-out.

One of the other things this new bill does, is move away from the standards of tripsitting that have thus far been employed by the two legal states. Washington will instead require a new license that is earned with 120 classroom hours, and 250 practice hours. In comparison, Oregon only mandated tripsitters to go through 40 hours of training.

Classroom training for tripsitting license
Classroom training for tripsitting license

Other states looking for psychedelics reform in 2023 – CT, IL, NY

The psychedelics industry is moving at breakneck speeds, going from a snowball to an avalanche in no time at all. Connecticut is one state looking for psychedelics reform in 2023. It’s doing so with a bill (H.B. No. 5102) which legalizes “the use of psilocybin for medicinal and therapeutic purposes, including, but not limited to, the provision of physical, mental or behavioral health care.” The bill is being spearheaded by democratic democratic Representative David Michel, who had this to say:

“Decriminalizing will help end the targeting of certain communities… and authorizing psilocybin for medical and therapeutical use, I believe, is key when mental health is at an all-time low.” He went on, that “It’s more needed than ever,” and that its senseless to be “constantly going through pharmaceutical products when nature-based approaches can be very effective.”

Illinois is another state looking for psychedelics reform in 2023. In the beginning of January, democratic Representative La Shawn Ford pre-filed the Compassionate Use and Research of Entheogens Act. This law would take psilocybin out of the controlled substances list of the state, and create an advisory board concerning therapeutic services for the compound. According to Ford, this bill, which would also expunge criminal records, is a main point for the season.

New York also wants in on psychedelics reform for this year. Democratic Assemblymember Linda Rosenthal pre-filed a bill early in January to legalize some entheogenic plants for an adult-use market of 21 and above. State statutes would be updated to allow the “possession, use, cultivation, production, creation, analysis, gifting, exchange, or sharing by or between natural persons of twenty-one years of age or older of a natural plant or fungus-based hallucinogen.”

The wording of the bill means inclusion of the standards like psilocybin, DMT, and mescaline, and could work to legalize more if not naming the drugs specifically. The bill would open up an industry of psychedelics services, and allow use of the plants in religious ceremonies (something that already applies to mescaline.)

Even more states looking to get in on it in 2023 – NJ, MO, VA, MO, MN, NH

No, we’re not done, there are several more states looking for psychedelics reform in 2023. Like New Jersey. Democratic Senate President Nicholas Scutari filed a bill last year that’s still in play. The bill would legalize not just the possession of psilocybin mushrooms, but their cultivation as well. Like most others of its kind, it would seek to set up locations where psilocybin services could be administered. New Jersey already signed off on a bill in 2021 to substantially reduce penalties for up to one ounce of psilocybin possession.

psychedelics reform to allow psilocybin
psychedelics reform to allow psilocybin

In Missouri, Representative Tony Lovasco re-filed a previously failed bill for psychedelics reform (HB 869), on January 18th of this year. The revised version would set up psilocybin service centers for issues like treatment-resistant PTSD and depression, and would require a doctor’s recommendation. Said Lovasco to Marijuana Moment, “We’re going to have to limit it to psilocybin initially as that’s what we have the most data and research on.”

Virginia also has a take on how to reform the issue. Out of several initiatives in the state, one of the most promising is from democratic Delegate Dawn Adams who put forth HB 1513, which would legalize psilocybin for “refractory depression or post-traumatic stress disorder or to ameliorate end-of-life anxiety.” All requiring a doctor’s prescription. The law comes with provider protections, and decriminalizes the non-medical use of the drug as well. Adams has yet another bill in play (HB 898) to decriminalize a host of psychedelic compounds.

A third bill in the state, filed by democratic Senator Ghazala Hashmi (SB 932), moves psilocybin from schedule I to schedule III. This bill would also seek to set up strategies for setting up psilocybin clinical services via a Virginia Psilocybin Advisory Board.

Next up is Montana which hasn’t released anything yet, but is working on two bills so far this year. The first would legalize medical psilocybin for psychiatric purposes. The second one is simply to set up a research initiative about psychedelics for medical use in general. Both are still in the draft stage.

Minnesota isn’t missing out, with a bill also in draft stage by democratic Representative Andy Smith. This bill would legalize, in some capacity, medical psychedelics. According to Smith, “For decades scientific research into the positive effects of psychedelic medicine has been muzzled by the ‘war on drugs,’ but that is [starting] to change.” No official bill is released yet.

Last up? New Hampshire. On January 5th, republican Representative Kevin Verville submit HB 328 which would institute an adult use market of 21 and above for a number of psychedelic compounds including synthetics like LSD, and entheogenic plants like psilocybin. The bill actually isn’t more specific than this in terms of exactly which drugs it applies to. Beyond creating an adult-use market for these drugs, it would work to lower penalties for the manufacture, possession, and sale of LSD and PCP.



It’s unlikely that all of the psychedelics reform bills for 2023 will go through, but some of them should. And then next year? Even more. The psychedelics world is really opening up, and within a few years we can easily expect the landscape to look very, very different.

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This Cannabis Con Man Could Get 10 Years In Prison — What Did He Do?




Justin Costello pretended to be a billionaire, claimed he was a war veteran, and took money from investors for cannabis businesses. Instead, he spent that money on himself including funding his lavish wedding. On Wednesday, Costello pleaded guilty a few months after a dramatic capture by an FBI SWAT team in California. He could get up to 10 years in prison due to his fraudulent activities.

GRN Holdings

According to the case filed in Seattle Washington, Costello claimed to be a self-made hedge-fund billionaire who managed money for wealthy people including a Saudi Sheikh. He also claimed to have a Harvard MBA and to have been shot twice as a special forces veteran with shrapnel remaining in his leg. In order to pretend he was wealthy, Costello planned to buy an $11 million house, showing bank statements for GRN Funds. The $9 million bank balance actually belonged to another cannabis company.

marijuana money
Photo by Cappi Thompson/Getty Images

The unsuspecting investors bought stock in GRN Holding Company, thinking the shares would eventually trade publicly. Costello also convinced the investors to open an account at TD Ameritrade and that he would manage their money at a discount from his usual fees. Costello did not possess any securities licenses. Costello was taking a 20% commission on the trades, which were only in shares of Discovery Gold Corporation (which eventually became GRN Holdings). The trading in the shares artificially propped up the price increasing Costello’s performance fees.

RELATED: Are Bad Actors In Cannabis On The Decline?

The cannabis con man kept the ruse up by putting out press releases claiming GRN Holdings was making acquisitions and that those companies had been vetted. Instead, Costello owned all the companies he claimed to be acquiring. In addition to that falsehood, a separately owned Costello company Renewal Fuels, made the acquisitions.

Ultimately, investors lost roughly $25 million in the GRN Holdings scheme.


Costello engaged in a similar scheme with another investor he convinced to invest in Hempstract Inc., which was trading at the time under the name Riverdale Oil & Gas. He also convinced investors to open a trading account and led them to believe he would be combining these cannabis companies into one larger entity.

By 2019, Costello told his investors that he had about 12 cannabis companies that he was planning to roll up into one larger company. He told the investors that these companies made millions in revenue, which was false. He continued to get more investor money as he claimed Hemstract was soon to go public.

Pacific Banking

GRN Holdings and Hempstract weren’t the only companies Costello was playing games with. Green Market Report reported Costello’s other company Pacific Banking was accused by Cann Distributors of failing to make millions of dollars in tax payments to the state of California on its behalf, as well as failing to pay vendor invoices. Cann was assessed $2 million in penalties by the state for not making those tax payments. The company also secured an order blocking Pacific from touching the roughly $2.8 million Cann said it had deposited with the bank that sees itself as a middleman between cannabis companies and traditional banks.

In addition to the issue over the tax payments, Cann Distributors also told the judge of a disturbing situation it learned about during the Costello deposition. The bank has apparently registered the Cann Distributor name in the state of Washington without telling the company.

RELATED: Cannabis Industry Takes On Deadbeat Dealers

The judge said at the time, “I have to say, that is the weirdest thing I have ever heard. I have never heard of an agreement that said one party could create a fictitious business in another state using the other party’s name.” The bank went through several ownership changes throughout the process. Pacific Processing was bought by Pacific Compliance, which was then bought by Renewal Fuels. It was also supposed to have been acquired by GRN Holdings (OTC: GRNF) which recently changed its name to Marijuana Inc.

marijuana court
Photo by matt_benoit/Getty Images

On the Lam

Last September, when Costello found out he was under indictment, he ran. He was captured by an FBI SWAT team in October and was held without bail.

According to court filings, he was found in a remote area near San Diego on Oct. 4. He was reported to have been carrying a backpack loaded with six one-ounce gold bars worth $12,000, U.S. currency worth $60,000, $10,000 in Mexican pesos and banking cards and checkbooks, prosecutors said in a court filing. Costello also had a receipt for a prepaid phone number in the backpack, along with a Washington state driver’s license in the name of “Christian Bolter” with Costello’s photograph, the filing said.

Pump & Dump

Costello paid stock promoters to pump up the penny stocks on Twitter and other social media. Once the shares began to rise on the purchases from his unsuspecting investors, he would then sell his shares at a profit and pay his promoters a share of the gains. It was a classic pump and dump scheme.

In October 2022, the SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) charged Justin Costello for using a false persona, as a Harvard-educated military veteran and hedge fund billionaire, to defraud investors out of millions of dollars. In a statement, the SEC also charged Costello and David Ferraro, an associate of Costello’s, for promoting the stock of several microcap companies on social media without disclosing their own simultaneous stock sales as market prices rose. The SEC also wants to bar Costello and Ferraro from serving as an officer and director and bar them from penny stocks.

The SEC statement said that Costello shared approximately $32,000 of his profits with Ferraro, and Ferraro profited approximately $41,000 from his own trading in this scheme. The SEC’s complaint also alleges that Ferraro separately conducted his own stock promotion scheme respecting two additional microcap stocks, generating profits of approximately $68,000.


As part of his guilty plea, Costello agreed to pay his victims $35 million in restitution. As part of his plea deal, his wife will not face any charges.

This article originally appeared on Green Market Report and has been reposted with permission.

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