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Press Release: Lobe Sciences Board of Directors Elects to Receive Shares in Lieu of Cash for All Board Fees

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Vancouver, British Columbia–(Newsfile Corp. – January 23, 2023) – Lobe Sciences Ltd. (CSE: LOBE) (OTCQB: LOBEF) (“Lobe” or the “Company”), a North American biopharmaceutical company committed to discovering and developing psychedelic derived medicines for neurologic and brain disease today announced its Board of Directors voted to receive shares in Lobe in lieu of the traditional cash renumeration.

Philip J. Young, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Company stated, “This is a tremendous endorsement of our progress and industry leading clinical development plans for 2023 and beyond. Lobe Sciences is proud of our transition into a fully integrated Biotechnology company that has developed the end-to-end capabilities to discover and produce pharmaceutical products. We have the capabilities for cGMP manufacturing, product development combined with industry leading expertise in the regulatory and clinical development of our proprietary psilocin drugs, L-130 and L-131.”

“Lobe’s leadership in neurological conditions and brain disease continues to grow as evidenced by its proprietary platform of differentiated tryptamine-based analogues. The Board looks forward to seeing the advancement of these novel compounds in clinical trials in the first half of 2023. Collectively, we will continue to offer our industry expertise and strategic support to Lobe as the Company emerges into a leader in neurologic conditions on a global scale.”

About Lobe Sciences Ltd.

Lobe Sciences is a life sciences company focused on developing patient friendly practical psychedelic medicines. The Company, through collaborations with industry-leading partners, is engaged in drug research and development using sub hallucinatory doses of psychedelic compounds and the development of innovative devices and delivery mechanisms to improve mental health and wellness.

For further information please contact:

Lobe Sciences Ltd.
Philip J Young, CEO
info@lobesciences.com
Tel: (949) 505-5623



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Psychedelics

Zuber Lawler Article: Oregon’s Flagship Commercial Psilocybin Licensing Program Takes Off

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Article by:

Partner Jeff Zuber, Counsel Raza Lawrence, and Associate Lizzie Fanckboner.

On January 2, 2023, Oregon began accepting applications for its first-in-the nation regulated psilocybin services program.  Under the new regulatory program, licensed psilocybin manufacturers will be permitted to manufacture and distribute psilocybin and psilocybin-based edible products, for use by anyone at least 21 years old at licensed psilocybin service centers, under the supervision of licensed facilitators.  The first psilocybin service centers are expected to open later in 2023.  With psilocybin distribution remaining illegal under federal law, subject to severe criminal penalties, and with local governments in Oregon instituting their own psilocybin-related laws in response to the state program, the world is watching to see how this trailblazing program unfolds.

Federal Law Undertones

As Oregon moves forward with its licensing, the psychedelics industry, which has been solely underground for decades, watches with cautious optimism.  Looming in the background is the federal Controlled Substances Act and the federal law enforcement officers, prosecutors, and courts, which for a long time have viewed psilocybin as a medically worthless and highly dangerous substance.  While the vast majority of controlled substances prosecutions occur at the state level, drug prosecutions are still the most commonly prosecuted type of federal crime, accounting for 31.3% of the total federal caseload in 2021.[1]  And psilocybin is a Schedule I controlled substance under federal law, making its distribution outside of limited federally approved research studies a serious felony subject to draconian prison sentences and financial penalties.  Under the federal sentencing guidelines, distribution of a single kilogram of psilocybin yields a federal “offense level” of 26, [2] corresponding to a recommended sentence of 63-78 months in federal prison for someone with no criminal record.[3]  Distribution of 10 kg of psilocybin yields an offense level of 32, corresponding to a recommended sentence of 121-151 months in federal prison.  With that in mind, compliance with state law is not a defense to a federal prosecution for violation of the Controlled Substances Act.

Fortunately, so far, the federal government has not expressed any interest in interfering with Oregon’s psilocybin services program.  The federally illegal commercial cannabis industry provides a solid precedent for federal prosecutors and law enforcement to take a hands-off approach to businesses complying with state licensing and regulatory systems that violate federal law.  The Oregon Psilocybin Services Act was initially passed by voters in 2020, and it seems reasonable to conclude that, if the federal government had intentions to interfere with Oregon’s program, it would have made that position clear during the two-year planning stage, or at least when the state began accepting licensing applications.  For instance, under President Obama, federal prosecutors sent letters to state and local government officials threatening to prosecute them if they implemented proposed commercial cannabis licensing programs, and federal officials conducted numerous raids of state-legal cannabis dispensaries.  And yet, federal prosecutors have made no similar threats with respect to Oregon’s psilocybin program, and for several years now, the federal government has not generally prosecuted people in compliance with state-regulated cannabis licensing programs.  Nevertheless, individual United States Attorneys have broad discretion to enforce federal laws, and enforcement priorities can change over time.  Until there is a change in federal laws, the prospect of federal enforcement will always be in the background and will likely effectively prohibit any interstate commerce in psilocybin.

Local Challenges

As an initial step to enter Oregon’s psilocybin program, many prospective participants are in the process of working with city and/or county officials and feeling out whether, and to what extent, local governments will be hospitable to the new industry.  City and county governments in Oregon had the opportunity to “opt out” of the licensed psilocybin industry by putting the matter to a vote of their residents in the November 2022 election.  Many local governments did opt out of the program, but there remain many jurisdictions that did not opt out, including most of Oregon’s largest cities. By not opting out, these places have signaled that they are at least somewhat open to working with this new industry.

In the places that will allow psilocybin businesses, psilocybin manufacturer and service center license applicants must obtain a “Land Use Compatibility Statement,” signed by a local city or county official, demonstrating that the proposed use of the property is consistent with local land use and zoning codes.  The steps for obtaining such a signature will vary depending upon local laws and customs.  Some jurisdictions have adopted specific zoning rules for psilocybin businesses, allowing them only in certain designated zones.  In other jurisdictions, local governments will apply the most analogous pre-existing zoning rules.  In many places, even where psilocybin businesses are allowed under zoning or land use rules, applicants will need to obtain a “Conditional Use Permit” from the local government. That process may include a public hearing, where any government officials, citizens, or community groups may make objections.  Accordingly, some degree of outreach to local politicians and neighborhood councils may be necessary, and prospective applicants can improve their odds of obtaining the required approval by demonstrating that they are responsible and active members of the community (e.g., by participating in community service and improvement programs).

Lingering Questions and New Challenges

While Oregon’s rollout appears to be going relatively smoothly, albeit slowly, there are still some remaining questions.  First, the Oregon psilocybin act and regulations provide that certain psilocybin licenses may be issued only to persons or entities that are either Oregon residents or are majority-owned by an Oregon resident (or by multiple Oregon residents).  There are legitimate questions as to whether this residency restriction passes muster under the Dormant Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution, which generally prohibits states from passing legislation that discriminates against or excessively burdens interstate commerce.[4]  Litigation over this issue could cause unexpected disruptions, as has been the case with several legal challenges to state and local cannabis licensing laws that treat local individuals more favorably than those from other states.  In any event, creative out-of-state participants can find ways to comply with the residency rules without majorly uprooting their economic plans, including through the use of management agreements and option agreements, at least until the residency requirement sunsets in 2025.

Some people are also concerned about the lack of confidentiality and privacy for those participating in Oregon’s psilocybin program.  Although the psilocybin ballot initiative passed by voters in 2020 (Measure 109) expressly prevented the government from collecting sensitive personal information without consent, Oregon State Senator Elizabeth Steiner has introduced a new bill, SB 303,[5] that would require psilocybin service centers to provide intimate personal data about clients to the Oregon Health Authority, which would maintain a comprehensive database of psilocybin users.  The data required to be stored would include the “reasons for which a client requests psilocybin services, including the types of behavioral health conditions the client experiences and the nature of any other reasons for which a client requests psilocybin services.” People who do not wish to share their personal data would be dissuaded from using the program and even perhaps denied access.

Given the ongoing federal psilocybin illegality, and the numerous related concerns – including gun rights, immigration, and employment – many are skeptical of the idea of being disclosed to, and having their personal information housed in a governmental database of psilocybin users.  These concerns are not merely theoretical. In 2016, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit issued an opinion in the case of Wilson v. Lynch[6] holding that people appearing in a state database of medical marijuana users could be barred from owning a firearm, pursuant to the Gun Control act of 1968, which prohibits individuals who are “an unlawful user of or addicted to any controlled substance” from owning or possessing a gun.  President Biden’s Department of Justice has fought in court to preserve the government’s ability to strip cannabis users of their gun rights, arguing that medical marijuana patients are too “dangerous” to own firearms, and that law-abiding citizens’ rights are not being infringed upon.  Non-US citizens should also be concerned about appearing in the psilocybin database, as anyone with a known connection to Schedule 1 controlled substances can be deported or denied asylum under the immigration laws.  With respect to employment, one of President Biden’s earliest actions as President was to fire numerous White House staffers who were known to have consumed marijuana.  Many other employers, both public and private, have similar “zero tolerance” policies regarding the use of Schedule I controlled substances by employees.

Finally, another proposed Oregon bill, HB 2973,[7] also threatens to impact the legal rights of psilocybin consumers.  In 2020, Oregon voters passed a bill – Measure 110 – decriminalizing the possession of personal-use amounts of various federally illegal drugs, including psilocybin.  HB 2973 would repeal this bill, enabling law enforcement and prosecutors to target and punish people for the personal use and possession of psilocybin and other controlled substances.  The bill would not, however, repeal the laws related to Oregon’s psilocybin services program, and would thus affect only people possessing psilocybin outside the framework of the new licensing system.

Despite these lingering issues, the first state-regulated psilocybin program launched this month, creating many opportunities for individuals and businesses to participate in this one-of-a-kind program. In similar fashion, Colorado voters passed a natural medicine access program in November of 2022, which will create a state-regulated psilocybin (to start) program, but about a year or so behind Oregon. Numerous other states have pending bills and proposals to legalize psilocybin and/or promote research related to psilocybin and other psychedelic substances.  Thus, there are ample reasons to celebrate and to be optimistic that the state-regulated psilocybin access programs will support and productively contribute to the new psychedelics renaissance.

__________________________________________________________________

[1] https://www.justice.gov/usao-mdpa/page/file/1498936/download

[2] Federal courts must consult the Federal Sentencing Guidelines to determine the base offense level(s), then adjust up or down based on numerous other factors, with the highest adjusted offense being level 43. The offense level corresponds with the length of the sentence.; https://guidelines.ussc.gov/de; 2021 Guidelines Manual (ussc.gov)

[3] https://www.ussc.gov/guidelines/2021-guidelines-manual/annotated-2021-chapter-5

[4] A law may violate the Dormant Commerce Clause if it discriminates on its face against interstate commerce. Here, discrimination means differential treatment of in-state and out-of-state economic interests, such that the former benefits and the latter is burdened by such treatment.

[5] https://olis.oregonlegislature.gov/liz/2023R1/Downloads/MeasureDocument/SB303/Introduced

[6] 835 F.3d 1083 (2016)

[7] https://olis.oregonlegislature.gov/liz/2023R1/Measures/Overview/HB2973



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4-OH-5-MEO-DMT

Meet Psilomethoxin, the Love Child of Psilocybin and 5-MeO-DMT 

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As unbelievable as it may seem, a new hallucinogen is emerging that utilizes magic mushroom mycelium to essentially create an orally active form of 5-MeO-DMT. It’s known as Psilomethoxin, and this novel discovery is not only exciting on the basis of the compound itself, but it also represents a special union of nature, spirit, and science. This could also be a serious game-changer for the future of synthetic psychedelic production.

What is Psilomethoxin? 

Psilomethoxin (4-OH-5-MeO-DMT) is a new tryptamine created in vivo using magic mushroom mycelium. After inoculation, and before the fruiting stage, 5-MeO-DMT is fed into the mushroom substrate, and once the flush comes in, the fruiting bodies contain Psilomethoxin rather than psilocybin or psilocin. It can be made by mixing a pure freebase powder into the substrate, or using a liquid hydrochloride solution. Psilomethoxin is not a scheduled substance, making it federally legal to possess and consume.

4-OH-5-MeO-DMT is an orally active version of classic 5-MeO-DMT (toad venom) with a longer half live. A drug’s half-life refers to the time it takes for the amount of the active substance in your body to reduce by half. Initial reports indicate that the high from psilomethoxin is very different from both 5-MeO and psilocybin.

The high is said to be slightly less intense than 5-MeO (in terms of visual and auditory hallucinations), but the trip lasts much longer. Because it seems like a lot of the psilocybin is canceled out during the cultivation process, the longer high could be simply due to the method of consumption, rather than the addition of mushroom compounds. The effects from cannabis edibles lasts longer than those from smoking as well, so it’s not uncommon.  

The Church of Psilomethoxin and history behind this compound  

Psilomethoxin was initially discovered and synthesized by researchers from the Pasteur Institute, led by Marc Julia, in 1965. The Pasteur Institute, founded in 1887, is French, non-profit center for biomedical research. It was named after Louis Pasteur, who invented pasteurization and vaccines for anthrax and rabies. 

The researchers obtained a patent for psilomethoxin, but due to the passing of the Controlled Substances Act in the 1970s, research came to a screeching halt and the patent lapsed after 20 years. The chemists who work with the compound also claim that the process of synthesizing it is very elaborate and time-consuming, which can explain why it remained uncommon for so long after its discovery.  

4-HO-5-MeO-DMT
4-HO-5-MeO-DMT

Fast forward a few decades to 2005, and a well-known American chemist, pharmacologist, and author – Alexander Shulgin – took an interest in this long-lost hallucinogen. He theorized that psilomethoxin could be more easily produced by introducing 5-MeO-DMT to magic mushroom substrate, although he never put this theory to practice.  

In 2021, entheogen-based spiritual/religious practitioner Ian Benouis picked up where Shulgin’s idea left off. The experiment was successful and Ian, along with his business and research partners Benjamin Moore and Ryan Begin, performed a week-long dieta to learn more about their new substance. Following a successful journey, the group reached out to attorney Greg Lake and launched the Church of Psilomethoxin, with 4-HO-5-MeO-DMT as their sacrament. The Church of Psilomethoxin is a majority veteran-founded organization, and much of its charitable work is directed toward the veteran community with a focus on mental health.  

According to Church officials, they continued to conduct experiments with psilomethoxin, mainly in the areas of safety and effects. Between November 2021 and September 2022, over 500 entheogen-based spiritual practitioners took part in their research project and gave detailed reports about their experiences. With very few accounts of negative side effects, the church felt confident enough to open their doors to the public in September 2022.  

The future of synthetic psychedelics 

After learning about psilomethoxin, the next logical question is whether or not this process would work with other compounds. Imagine growing mushrooms with LSD or mescaline… if that was possible, it would be incredible! Others have theorized about adding kratom to substrate and creating 4-HO-mitragagynine, and the list goes on.


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The reality is, it’s likely to only work with other tryptamine compounds. And while lysergamides are a subset of tryptamines, it’s hard to say if uptake would occur with LSD and if it would undergo the same 4-Hydroxylation that occurrs with 5-MeO-DMT. Mescaline would also be a challenge as phenethylamines likely won’t be taken up by mushrooms. 

But back to tryptamines, which are naturally occurring alkaloids found in numerous plants and life forms around the world. There are actually more than 1,500 natural varieties of tryptamine compounds that have been discovered so far. Consider how many orally active tryptamine substances can be created using the mushroom mycelium method. Some have been tested already, such as DET (N, N-diethyltryptamine), which makes 4-HO-DET, but it remains a relatively uncharted sector of the psychedelics industry.

Final thoughts  

Summarized, psilomethoxin is an edible form of 5-MeO-DMT, and it’s the result of adding 5-MeO to psilocybin mushroom substrate. To clarify, it’s very different than taking 5-MeO and eating some magic mushrooms with it, as the DMT takes over the mushroom and you don’t really get many effects from the psilocybin. What you do get is a slightly milder, yet longer lasting “God molecule” high. It’s very new, so not much is known about it, but as more information becomes available, we’ll be the first to give you all the updates! 

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The Positives and Negatives of Magic Mushrooms

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Magic mushrooms, like any substance, can be the best or worst drug to take. It really depends on a variety of factors. It’s sometimes hard to find a nuanced view on recreational drugs – especially when many people want to either berate them or promote them beyond belief. The truth is – like people – drugs have their good sides and their bad. In this article we’re going to go through the positives and negatives of these hallucinogenic drugs, with the hope that with this knowledge you’ll be able to create your perfect psilocybin experience. Let’s go. 

What are Magic Mushrooms?

There are supposedly around 14,000 species of mushrooms in the world, and only 200 of these are considered ‘magic’. To put this into perspective, around 100 of the 14,000 species are also fatal. You don’t want to mix these guys up. The most common of the magic mushrooms are the Cubensis or golden cap. These have a brown top and long white stem. Magic mushrooms, also known as shrooms, are a type of mushroom that contains the psychoactive compound psilocybin.

This compound is converted into psilocin in the body and is responsible for the hallucinogenic effects of the mushrooms. They can produce altered states of consciousness, including visual and auditory hallucinations and changes in perception. Magic mushrooms have been used for centuries by indigenous people in Central and South America for spiritual and medicinal purposes. It is believed that statues dating back to 200CE exist that highlight the communal use and admiration for the magic plant. 

Now

Despite the past, shrooms are now illegal in most of the major nations in the world. In the US, psilocybin is a Schedule I drug and, In the UK, it is considered a class A. These are both on the same level of substances as heroin in regards to severity of sentence and danger. However, in recent years there has certainly been a slow shifting tide. The use of psilocybin in the medical world – specifically in treating mental health issues – has destigmatized the drug. John Hopkins Medicine was heavily involved in these studies and: 

“Researchers showed that psychedelic treatment with psilocybin relieved major depressive disorder symptoms in adults for up to a month. Now, in a follow-up study of those participants, the researchers report that the substantial antidepressant effects of psilocybin-assisted therapy, given with supportive psychotherapy, may last at least a year for some patients.”

The effects of magic mushrooms, when paired with therapy, can seriously help people alter their depressive tendencies. It is these kinds of studies, and the acceptance of the benefits of drugs, that highlights the importance of nuance in the drug conversation. 

Nuance in Drug Conversation

For too long now, ‘drugs’ have been synonymous with ‘bad’. It is time to open up our minds and see the nuance. Substances have the potential to be dangerous if used incorrectly, whilst also fun and beneficial if used right. Nuance is an important aspect of any discussion, but it is especially crucial when it comes to discussions about drugs. This is because they can have a wide range of effects on the human body and can be used for a variety of purposes. Without nuance, it is easy for a conversation about drugs to become oversimplified or misleading.

The War on Drugs, began by Nixon, is responsible for killing any nuance. He successfully demonized the substances, and many other social groups, for his own political gain. This has lasted generations. It is 2023, and now is the time for us to fully throw away any preconceived ideas we once had about illegal substances, and simply look at the data and studies that are being done. Of course, drugs have hurt and killed people, but so have they helped and saved people. Let’s educate the world openly and use these substances to our own advantage. 

Pros & Cons of Shrooms

As we’ve said, nuance is key. Magic mushrooms have the ability to open up people’s minds and fill their lives with joy, but they also can be quite revealing and scary. Hallucinations are not always positive and fun. We’re going to take a look – in a nuanced fashion – at some of the pros and cons of magic mushrooms.

Positives of Magic Mushrooms

Positive side effects of taking magic mushrooms may include:

1 – Creativity

Psilocybin activates receptors in the brain and reduces the energy needed for the brain to switch between activity states. This can increase activity if taken at the right dosage. Many people report feeling more creative and having a greater sense of self-awareness after taking magic mushrooms. This can be helpful for those seeking personal growth or wanting to get something creative done. This is why micro-dosing shrooms have become so popular. Suddenly you’re able to think outside of your usual boxed brain, and can come up with ideas and thoughts that usually aren’t there. Some believe the entire concept of the internet was derived from an LSD trip. 


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2 – Connection

When you take mushrooms, it can Increase the sense of connection to others and the world around you. The borders between these things suddenly vanish, allowing you to realise that we are all one and the same. In other words, ego death. Your individuality no longer matters, you are part of one entity. This can lead to a sense of unity and a feeling of oneness with the universe. It can also seriously improve our relationships with other people in our lives, realising they too are struggling non-egos wandering around this confusing world. 

3 – Mental Health Improvement

It is this ego death that can seriously help with reducing anxiety and depression in people who suffer from this. With therapy too, they can move away from their usual thought patterns, and see that the world is not against them. In fact, there is no ‘them’ and never needed to be. The powers of psilocybin allow us to completely shift our minds, realising that our problems, fears and anxieties are not necessarily as important or crippling as we once thought.

Negatives of Magic Mushrooms

Negative side effects of taking magic mushrooms may include:

1 – Hallucinations

On the other hand, hallucinations and distorted perception can also be a difficult thing to experience. One of the main effects of magic mushrooms is the alteration of perception, which depending on your own set and setting, will either be enjoyable or the complete opposite. If you are not in the ideal mindset or location, it is possible that your visions may become unpleasant. They may become overwhelming or even frightening. This is why set and setting is so integral to any trip embarked on. 

2 – Paranoia

Another negative of this psychedelic drug that can occur is paranoia and anxiety. The unpleasant hallucinations can easily lead to these feelings. Suddenly you become afraid of what might arise in you, or what you might do or say. You no longer feel free and spirited, instead you feel out of control. Being out of control is not something we are used to as people in a constricted and structured world, which is why it’s always good to have a trip sitter with you. They can ensure you stay safe. 

3 – Nausea

Magic mushrooms aren’t the best tasting plants. In fact, it can be quite disgusting eating a few grams of these. They taste like sour soil with a consistency of a mushy potato. Basically not ideal. In addition, when they settle in your stomach, they don’t always agree with everyone. Magic mushrooms can cause nausea and vomiting in some people, particularly if they are consumed in large amounts. The key is to have a drink with you and eat them slowly. 

Conclusion

These were some of the positives and negatives of magic mushrooms, laid out in a nuanced way. This is because magic mushrooms can be amazing, but they can also be dangerous if used incorrectly. It is time for us to understand both realities at the same time. As with any psychoactive substance, it is important to use caution and to be aware of the potential risks. But it’s also vital that we allow these specimens to have the medical and recreation benefits that they’ve been giving us for centuries. It’s time to befriend the shroom, not outcast it. Nonetheless, in 2023, the future of psilocybin is beginning to look bright.

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