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Flushing Cannabis Plants: Guide for Optimal Yield and Aromas



To eliminate excess salts and enhance the smoking experience, it is recommended to flush cannabis plants with plain water. We explain flushing for different growing mediums, how to optimise your watering practices, and more. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced grower, this guide provides essential information about flushing your cannabis plants.

What does flushing mean?

Flushing cannabis has become a common practice during the final stages of a cannabis plant’s life cycle. When plants grow in soil, coco, or a hydroponic growing medium, providing water without nutrients during the last 7 to 14 days has many benefits. Flushing is essential to the growing process from legally licensed cultivation facilities to hobby growers!

Watering a cannabis plant with plastic watering bucket

Many believe that flushing your plants will not only wash away any undissolved salts that have accumulated inside the growing medium around the root zone but also cause weed plants to enter a catabolic state. In other words, they begin to feed on themselves, which gives the impression that the plants are using any internal reserve nutrition before being harvested.

When is the right time to flush weed plants?

A metal sprinkler flushing a cannabis plant growing outdoors

The optimal length of the flushing period is a subject of debate among many growers. While most prefer a 14-day period before harvest, some find that a seven-day period of plain water is sufficient. Notably, the flushing period should coincide with the strain’s flowering time. For instance, if a grower is flowering a strain with an expected flowering time of 8 weeks, the flush will occur between weeks 6 and 8 of the flowering stage to ensure optimal results.

After flushing, growers can enjoy a smoother smoke and improved flavour and aroma in their final product.

The benefits of flushing

Close-up of cannabis leaf with droplets of water on it

There are many benefits associated with flushing cannabis plants. The flavour of weed will taste much smoother and more refined, and the ember of a joint will burn slowly without side burning. The ash from a joint will also be soft white and fall at the lightest tap. As far as practicality goes, substrates such as coco and soil can be reused once well flushed, and medicinal users prefer the peace of mind of a product free of chemicals and salts.

What are the salts that need flushing out?

As you may be aware, cannabis plants need a balance of primary and secondary nutrients, as well as trace mineral elements, to grow strong and healthy. These essential nutrients come in salts, which dissolve in contact with water. However, over time, these salts can build up around the roots and sit within the growing medium, potentially causing harm to your plants. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the risks of nutrient buildup and take appropriate measures to flush your plants correctly.

An orange watering bucked flushing a cannabis plant growing in a pot

Primary nutrients

Primary nutrients, or micronutrients, are essential elements that plants require in relatively large quantities for their growth and development. There are three primary nutrients:

1. Nitrogen (N)

Nitrogen is a key component for chlorophyll production, allowing weed plants to photosynthesise and store energy. Cannabis plants will use nitrogen during the seedling, vegetative and flowering stages.

2. Phosphorus (P)

Phosphorus is a nutrient that helps boost root growth and is responsible for flower production. This nutrient is essential during the early growth stages of weed plants and clones.

3. Potassium (K)

Potassium combined with phosphorus will promote a heavy set of flowers and buds. It is also responsible for the stomata function of the leaf tissue, which allows plants to absorb CO2 and perform photosynthesis.

Secondary nutrients

The plants use these nutrients less than the primary nutrients mentioned above; however, they are just as important in their own unique way. There are three secondary nutrients weed plants require during their lifecycle.

1. Calcium (Ca)

Calcium is an essential nutrient which helps plants fight off disease and pests. A key component for building cell walls, often sold together with magnesium as Cal-Mag.

2. Magnesium (Mg)

Magnesium has many roles and functions as a secondary plant nutrient, ranging from chlorophyll synthesis to enzyme activation.

3. Sulphur (S)

Sulphur is responsible for enzyme activity and nitrogen, oil and protein synthesis metabolism.

Trace elements

As the title suggests, these elements are present in trace amounts. Trace elements are responsible for photosynthesis, hormone production, cell development, flower and seed production. So, let us check out the six most important elements.

1. Manganese (Mn)

Manganese is essential for plant growth, production, metabolism, and interaction with plant cells.

2. Copper (Cu)

Copper is responsible for enzyme production, chlorophyll development and germination.

3. Zinc (Zn)

Zinc has a role which aids enzyme production and plant metabolism and is a key player with general plant health.

4. Iron (Fe)

Iron aids with chlorophyll production and photosynthesis, fruit and flower production. Too much iron can cause plants to become stunted.

5. Boron (B)

The role of boron is to help with root elongation and tissue production, cell membranes and pollen production.

6. Molybdenum (Mo) 

Molybdenum is responsible for the synthesis and activity of enzymes and is vital for the process of nitrogen. It will then convert nitrogen to amino acids and fix nitrogen in the soil.

Step-by-step guide to flushing

A person watering a cannabis plant growing in a pot with watering bucket

As a responsible grower, it is crucial to understand the importance of flushing your cannabis plants to remove excess nutrients and salts that can build up in your medium. This process helps to ensure that your plants reach their full potential in terms of flavour, aroma, and overall quality. Luckily, we have a comprehensive step-by-step guide that will help you flush your cannabis plants correctly and effectively.

1. The water source

To ensure proper flushing of cannabis, it is imperative to utilise a fresh water source. This can be attained from various sources, such as bottled water, tap water, or rainwater. It is, however, crucial to avoid using stagnant water, as it can harm plants. It is worth noting that soft water, which has lower levels of calcium and magnesium, is preferable for flushing cannabis compared to hard water.

Reverse osmosis water is also an excellent choice for flushing. This purified water is produced by filtering regular tap water through a specialised membrane filter that functions as a super-fine sieve. It allows only water molecules to pass through while blocking impurities and contaminants. If you have access to reverse osmosis water, it can be a valuable asset in achieving optimal plant growth.

2. Check the pH level

Depending on which growing medium is being used will determine the pH level of the water the plants will receive from seed until harvest. The best way to check the pH of your water source is by using a digital pen. Below is more detailed information about the recommended Ph levels for soil, coco and rock wool.

3. Water temperature

The ideal water temperature for cannabis plants is between 18 and 22°C (64 to 71°F). Avoid providing weed plants with cold water, as this will cause the temperature of the root zone to drop significantly and can potentially hinder the plant’s development.

4. The flush

During the flushing process, it is recommended to water your plant pot using three to five times the volume of water typically used. Pour water around the base of the stem and wait for the water to permeate through the soil. This process will help to ensure that the growing medium becomes thoroughly soaked, with excess water draining from the bottom.

5. Disposing of run-off water

Disposing the run-off water is crucial, as it contains all the unwanted residues removed from your growing medium. Always remember that proper flush measures can prevent nutrient buildup and help your plants reach their full potential.

Flushing plants in coco

Coco coir is made from the hairs of coconut husks. Once treated with salts and buffered, coco becomes an excellent growing medium thanks to its high water content and air capacity. It is best to use reverse osmosis water at pH 6.0 when flushing weed plants grown with coco. Adding enzymes to used coco will also break down old root matter, allowing it to be recycled and used for a second crop.

How to flush plants in soil

Flushing cannabis plants grown in living soil will probably cause the most considerable debate among growers regarding flushing. Organic nutrients will buffer over 72 hours, digested by the beneficial microbes and bacteria in the soil. Some soil growers may only feed plain water throughout the entire life cycle and may not even need to wash away salt buildup. The pH of the water should be between 5.5 and 6.5 for an organic soil substrate.

How to flush plants in rock wool

Rock wool is a hydroponic growing medium containing no nutrients, making it an inert growing medium perfect for hydroponic applications. With the ability to hold up to 18 times its weight in water, rock wool is used for commercial-scale vegetable and fruit production. It is the most popular among indoor hydroponic growers. The pH of the water should be between 5.5 and 6.5 when flushing weed plants in rock wool. Unlike coco, rock wool cannot be recycled and should be discarded after every harvest.

How to flush cannabis autoflowering varieties

Autoflower cannabis plants can be treated the same way as photoperiod plants. Fourteen days will be the ideal time to feed autoflowering plants in plain water. So if you are new to growing autoflowering plants, follow our guide and give your plants the best possible chance to thrive! This will help you avoid common mistakes and ensure your plants receive the proper care they need throughout their growth cycle.

Nutrient lockout in cannabis plants

A top-view of a cannabis plant with yellow and burned leaf showing the nutrient lockout

Nutrient lockout occurs when cannabis plants can’t absorb nutrients from their growing medium, often due to a pH imbalance or excessive nutrient buildup, especially salts from fertilisers.

  1. Causes: Imbalanced pH and overfertilisation leading to nutrient and salt accumulation.
  2. Symptoms: Stunted growth, leaf discolouration, and poor bud development, resembling nutrient deficiencies.
  3. Management: Prevent and address lockout by regularly flushing the growing medium with pH-balanced water to remove excess salts and minerals. Monitoring pH and electrical conductivity (EC) levels helps in early detection and maintaining a balanced feeding schedule is crucial to avoid overfertilisation.

Flushing not only prevents nutrient lockout but also can resolve it if symptoms appear, maintaining the health of cannabis plants.

Constant vs active flushing

Constant flushing is a technique used in cannabis cultivation where plants are watered exclusively with plain water throughout the flowering stage. While this approach assumes that the nutrients in the growing medium are enough to support the plant’s growth, it may result in nutrient deficiencies if essential nutrients are absent.

On the other hand, active flushing is a targeted approach that involves supplementing cannabis plants with only water during the final weeks of flowering. This method helps to optimise the removal of residual nutrients and reduce the risk of nutrient deficiencies during the bulk of the flowering stage. However, it does require careful monitoring and may involve more labour-intensive management than constant flushing.

Tips to consider for flushing weed

Flushing weed not only improves the smoking experience it also gives you an indication of how far your plants are ready for harvest day. Below are three top tips to consider to help you get the most out of the flushing period.

1. Using enzymes to flush cannabis plants

Enzymes are not only protein building blocks for weed plants, but they also accelerate the decomposition of undissolved salts. An excellent tip is to try at least two different enzyme products. The more enzymes a grower can provide for the substrate and roots, the more your plants will thank them.

Enzymes are building blocks for proteins and actively break down organic matter. There are many benefits for growers who use enzymes not only during the flushing period but also throughout the seedling, vegetative, and flowering periods. Roots love a good enzyme wash and will produce a bright, healthy glow.

2. Identifying the harvest window

The day a grower decides to harvest their cannabis plants should be based not only on how many days are left to flush but also on trichome maturity, calyx development, trichome coverage, and terpene production. Aligning the flushing stage with the above traits will allow them to achieve the most significant yields possible.

Fourteen days is the most popular choice amongst growers; however, some find seven days of plain water work just fine. The flushing period should coincide with the strain’s flowering time. So, for example, if a grower is growing a strain with an expected flowering time of 8 weeks, the flush will occur after 6 to 8 weeks of flowering.

3. Optimal watering practices for healthy growth

Root rot occurs when the growing medium becomes too wet, and the oxygen levels around the roots become too low. As a result, aerobic bacteria infect the roots, leading to a world of problems. The best way to prevent root rot is to allow the growing medium to dry out again. Dry-back periods are the way to solve overwatered substrates.

The flushing weed myth debunked

A black sprinkler flushing cannabis plants growing in black pots

In 2020, RX Green Technologies conducted an in-house study to determine whether flushing plants affect cannabinoid production, yield, mineral content, and extract quality. Using a Cherry Diesel plant, the study involved flushing samples for zero days, one week, ten days, and 14 days.

The results showed a slight increase in THC levels and terpenes in the flushed samples, with no significant difference in mineral content. Interestingly, the 14-day flushed sample had the highest return on extracts, and the blind taste test resulted in an even score across the board, indicating no significant difference in taste.

At Sensi Seeds, we consider flushing to be a crucial and integral step in the growing process. By flushing the plants with plain water before the harvest, we can effectively remove any excess nutrients and salts from the plant’s system. This process helps to improve the overall quality of the final product, resulting in a smoother smoke and better flavour and aroma. Whenever we grow plants in our facilities for the purpose of creating a grow report, we apply flushing during the final grow stage as well.

Is flushing my weed plants essential?

Growers can debate for hours which flushing technique works best if one week or two is the way forward, and some believe flushing is not even necessary in the first place. However, after reading this article, you should be more than confident in understanding the importance of flushing weed means.

Flushing methods can vary among growers, so remain open-minded and choose what works best based on your skills and experience. Good luck mastering the flush game and growing the best crop possible!

  • Disclaimer:

    Laws and regulations regarding cannabis cultivation differ from country to country. Sensi Seeds therefore strongly advises you to check your local laws and regulations. Do not act in conflict with the law.

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Pop seeds 2024-Part II: Attack of the Sours




Read Part I

World’s best seeds and clones to grow in 2024

There’s a universe in every nug, so let’s continue our journey through time and space with Part II of the World’s best seeds and clones to grow in 2024, aka Attack of the Sours. Also starring Purps, Tangies, sativas, and vintage stuff.

Sour Diesel strains

An AJ's Sour Diesel appears. (David Downs/Leafly)
An AJ’s Sour Diesel appears. (David Downs/Leafly)

As New York City finally warms up to legalization, expect an onslaught of Sours. We all love Sour Diesel for its sour lime and gas smell and energetic hybrid sativa effects.

At the top of my list for sours to check out: Humboldt County-based, 7 year-old CHAnetics’ whole line of Lime Sour, spotted in the cave at The Ego Clash 2023 in Mendocino, and online now for $100 a pack. Lime Sour consists of Skunktech’s Sour D x Lime F5. CHAnetics Weasel’s Sour may prove the most sour, but we’re also intrigued by the Zangria and Zoap hybrids.

All your sour—are belong to us. (David Downs/Leafly)
All your sour—are belong to us. (David Downs/Leafly)

Karma Genetics keeps the sour flame alive in 2024 with their latest Sour Lemon Mochi—(Mochi x LemonTini) x KG Sour D bx.

If you love sours, you’d be foolish to ignore Clearwater Genetics’ Sour Diesel crosses to Triangle Kush, Lime OG, Maitai #4, or Pablo’s Revenge.


How to order weed delivery online with Leafly

Pushin’ OG Kushes

Sour Diesel and OG Kush are cousins—no doubt. If Sour D hits limey and biting and zippy, OG hits lemony, biting, and relaxing.

Purple City Genetics founder and head breeder Auryn McCafferty said, “We want to see more high-quality OG Kush on the market.” 

Preach. PCG brings back ‘BTY OG’ this year—which stands for ‘better than yours.’ And they don’t put out new OGs lightly. 

“BTY OG is one of our favorites and Oaksterdam OG is one of the best performing. BTY has got more lemon-pine and reminds us of LA. Oaksterdam is a huge yielder and easy to grow and has more of a tennis balls and gas to it, and reminds us of Humboldt.”

All Gas, no brakes. Humboldt Seed Co All Gas OG. (Courtesy Humboldt Seed Co.)
All Gas, no brakes. Humboldt Seed Co All Gas OG. (Courtesy Humboldt Seed Co.)

Buy the OG seeds and cuts you want to see in the world, said Auryn. 

“We’re gonna keep dropping OG’s over the next few years from our archive if we get a good response. We have six other cuts in mind that we feel like fill out the fullness of that family, so let’s hope they hit.”

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The whole world should can tap Humboldt Seed Co.’s All Gas OG—with notes of skunk, orange and pine. It comes in feminized and autoflower.

“Everything about All Gas OG is huge—the plant, the leaves, the nugs, and the high. It’s a great producer of dense, bright green nugs,” HSC writes.

Double OG Chem wrapping it up in 2023. (David Downs/Leafly)
Double OG Chem wrapping it up in 2023. (David Downs/Leafly)

The multi-Emerald Cup Award-winning Rebel Grown Seeds returns in 2024 with their Double OG Chem crusher. We grew that last year. It slaps.

And for the transition to the Tangie section—peep Wonderbrett’s Byrdseed brand and their Tequila Zee—mixing Brett’s OZ Kush (Z x OG Kush) with Pineapple OG x Clementine. That’s how you keep it Cali Sober.

Take me to Tangie town

A photo of Mimosa (David Downs/Leafly)
Mimosa. Hybrid. (David Downs/Leafly)

Citrusy strains rock for all-day creativity that goes into evening.

It’s such a great time to buy iconic Clementine seeds straight from Crockett Family Farms in the Sierra Nevada, or legit Mimosa seeds from Symbiotic Genetics in Sacramento. Pour it on even thicker with Lemosa (Str8lemonade x Mimosa V6) this year.

Brian at Crockett Family Farms said younger smokers don’t even know about anything besides mainstream purple candy-gas. He predicts more “fruity strains and real OGs in 2024. Strawberries and Tangies—big wave, bro,” he told Leafly.

Also, branch out with highly regarded Biovortex and his Kurious Orange. It’s Mandarine crossed to his highly respected Black Dog x (Tangerine Haze x Golden Goat).

“Huge plants, super-terpy, very unique, and great high that finish in early October.”

Auryn McCafferty, founder, Purple City Genetics, on Orange 76

Furthermore in ‘24, PCG drops small batches of tester seeds, like their favorite modern sativa, Orange 76, which will finish on time; unlike other sativas. It’s Orange Cookie Dough x Motorbreath15 x Moroccan Peaches. 

“Huge plants, super-terpy, very unique, and great high that finish in early October,” said McCafferty. 

Also check out Cel-Ray—Lemon Tree Skorange x GovernMint Oasis—with “a super unique ginger lemon pepper terp, and a great high, and also finishes in October.”

Vintage sativa thrills

Spotted in NYC, the narrow green Piff Haze. (David Downs/Leafly)
Spotted in NYC, the narrow green Piff Haze. (David Downs/Leafly)

Speaking of sativas, add some diversity to the cannabis gene pool this year—grow a feral, weird equatorial strain.

Equilibrium Genetics specializes in such fantastic beasts, and recommends Maui Bx, and Vietnamese x Blueberry. You can get them delivered right to your house from Leafly in California.

Compton, CA’s force of natural selection, Masonic Seeds, sells a vintage Haze x Colombian x Rainbow Belts dubbed Rainbow Escobar for this season.

Masonic Seeds' Rainbow Escobar pack. (Courtesy Masonic Seeds)
Masonic Seeds’ Rainbow Escobar pack. (Courtesy Masonic Seeds)

Also, sample some real deal old-school New York Piff haze from Purple City Genetics with the strain Sango.

“We lament the increasing lack of diversity in the gene pool since the end of Prop 215 and continue to try and inject more of our 8 to 9-week modern sativas into the market that test around 30%, have bag appeal, and are bred for production,” said McCafferty.

“We see more farms taking chances on planting some long flowering sativas too. We love Sango (Cuban Black Haze x Gush Mints) that tastes like the perfect mash up of late 90’s New York piff and that modern Cali gas.

PCG also offers a Congolese Bubblegum (Bazooka Joe x Black Congo) x Gush Mints that “has an incredible high and metallic piff and cedar terps, so exotic for the true connoisseur.”

One more from the 16 year-old PCG: Bob Hope (Super Lemon Haze x Durban Biscotti) looks “like purple candy-gas, but tastes like Dutch herb from the ’90’s and has an amazing well-balanced sativa high.” 

Vintage indica chills

Purest Indica. (David Downs/Leafly)
Purest Indica. (David Downs/Leafly)

Come down from your astral sativas with some vintage indicas. Todd McCormick at Ag Seed Co recommends another run of his ‘83-era Purest Indica. We grew it last year and it’s such a satisfying reference point for what we talk about when we talk about indicas. This short, squat, icy bush smelled like burnt brakes and sent us to dreamland. It’s upstream of Northern Lights, and Todd said it contains a lot of skunk aroma called thiols.

For more old school, Rebel Grown Seeds out in Vermont brings out Segunku Skunk, an improvement on Adirondack Gold, an old skunk of the Northeast; with proceeds going to a local indigenous tribe.

Furthermore, Masonic Seeds connects the ‘60s hippie trail to your gardens with a straight-up Mazar Sherif.

Aged Cheeses

Before we go, let’s put out a little charcuterie board for you this year with three cheeses from our reporting.

On Jan. 27, Dynasty Genetics released a line of crosses of the famed Exodus Cheese—from the ‘90s English rave commune. We’d run the Super Silver Cheese ‘98 for fun.

Equilibrium Genetics unites two continents in his African Cheese.

More modern—Masonic Seeds offers a Cheese Romulan that should leave you stunned.

And a fistful of Purps

Rest in resin, Frenchi Cannoli. (David Downs/Leafly)
Rest in resin, Frenchi Cannoli. (David Downs/Leafly)

Lastly, we wrap up part II with two purps—another old-school flavor everyone would love to see come back around.

Equilibrium Genetics serves up an Urkle GDP worth adding to your library.

Meanwhile, CHA honors the legacy of famed hashmaker Frenchie Cannoli with multiple crosses of Frenchy’s Grapes (Frenchy’s Force x Creme De Papaya). 

This line unites a ton of hitters: Glue, GAK, Papaya, and Grape Cream Cake. 

CHA put pollen from a male Frenchy’s Grapes on 31 insanely hype crosses from 15 breeders. Start with Frenchy’s Grapes x Masonic’s (Grape Gas x Peach Ringz).

So that’s another 1,000 words of wisdom on what to pop this Valentine’s Day. If you’re bored by the usual suspects—don’t hate, germinate.

Next up: Pop Seeds 2024 concludes with Part III, dubbed ‘Hash Rules Everything Around Me.’

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7 Best Strains in Italy




The impact of Italy on the cannabis industry is remarkable. Gelato and strains with dessert-like flavours are gaining significant popularity among enthusiasts. Moreover, there has been a noteworthy increase in Italians’ cultivation practices documented through various platforms like Growdiaries, highlighting the country’s growing prominence in the cannabis community.

Italy’s climate is diverse and varies significantly between the northern and southern regions. The northern areas, such as Liguria and Lombardy, have a continental climate with shorter summers and colder winters. Conversely, the southern areas enjoy a Mediterranean climate with warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters, making it an ideal location for outdoor cannabis cultivation.

In Italy, planting typically occurs during spring, and harvesting occurs in autumn when the days are shorter and the temperatures are cooler. This timing allows for optimal growth and development of the cannabis plant, resulting in a high-quality harvest. If you’re looking for the top cannabis strains to cultivate in Italy, then you’re in luck. Here are the seven best strains to consider.

1. Caramellow Kush

Caramellow Kush Automatic combines two potent hybrids, the heavy-hitting Gorilla and the flavoursome Zkittlez. Italian cannabis growers have widely embraced this strain due to its high potency and ease of cultivation. This strain has proven successful in various climates, from the damp northern regions to the sunny south, making it a versatile choice for growers across the country.

Like a classic Kush, Caramellow Kush produces big, chunky buds covered in trichomes that fill the internodal spacing with a classic indica appearance. Despite being an autoflowering strain, it is known for its high-yielding nature, with growers recording yields of up to 550 grams after a 55 to 70-day flowering period. Similar to a traditional indica strain, Italian cannabis users have reported experiencing a sustained body high that induces feelings of euphoria and contentment.

Well-known for its sweet and creamy profile, Caramellow Kush Automatic is almost reminiscent of your grandparents’ Werther’s Originals. It also has a subtle, sweet, and fruity fragrance that leaves a candy-like taste in your mouth, thanks to the influence of Zkittlez. Upon exhalation, users can experience the distinct, robust, earthy flavour and skunky undertones commonly associated with Kush varieties. If you’re a Kush enthusiast fond of sweet flavours, it is definitely worth trying out!

2. Sweet Tangerine Tango

This potent indica strain, Sweet Tangerine Tango Automatic, was created by crossbreeding three highly potent cultivars: OG Kush, Girl Scout Cookies, and Face-Off OG. It is a heavy-hitting strain that delivers a strong punch. Sweet Tangerine Tango Automatic has been a popular choice among Italian cultivators since its addition to our White Label collection in 2023.

Sweet Tangerine Tango is a versatile strain that thrives in Mediterranean climates. Thanks to its autoflowering traits, this strain is easy to grow and its compact and robust nature. With a flowering period of between 55 and 65 days, this strain produces compact buds that stack on themselves, filling the short internodal spacing. However, growers should be aware of the heavy foliage throughout the vegetation period and consider defoliation to ensure optimal growth.

True to its name, Sweet Tangerine Tango boasts an exquisite terpene profile featuring loud notes of zesty tangerine and subtle fragrances of spicy charas. These delightful aromas are sure to make your mouth water in anticipation of the strain’s potent effects. As a well-balanced hybrid, users can anticipate an uplifting euphoria that frees the mind, enhances creativity, and gradually transitions into a long-lasting subtle body high.

3. Guerrilla’s Gusto

For outdoor growers in Italy, Guerrilla’s Gusto is the perfect indica strain. It boasts a quick flowering time, easy growth, and can tolerate even the harshest weather conditions. While it was developed to enhance Indian lineage, its tall posture stands apart from other indicas. One thing to note is that this is a regular strain, so you will need to determine the sex of your plant after about four weeks.

Despite their indica-dominant genetics, Guerilla’s Gusto plants can reach impressive heights when planted in open soil. However, indoors, they can be kept at a manageable size with the help of training techniques. This strain is highly resilient to temperature changes, pests, and precipitation, making it suitable for cultivation in any climate across Italy. Its large and dense buds coated in a sticky resin layer make Guerilla Gusto an attractive addition to any garden.

Guerilla’s Gusto provides a classic old-school indica experience with sticky buds offering a physical and relaxing high. The strain’s aroma combines the subtle fragrance of citrus with fresh sandalwood and earth, creating a unique and pleasant blend. Guerilla’s Gusto is best enjoyed in the late afternoons, as the high begins with an uplifting sense of euphoria that eventually transitions into a long-lasting and soothing body high.

4. Banana Kush Cake

Banana Kush Cake, an indica-dominant autoflower, is highly suitable for cultivation across Italy, including the colder northern regions. It is a true powerhouse with genetics, including Wedding Cheesecake, Banana Kush, and Hindu Kush Auto. Its unique terpene profile provides a delightful aroma, yielding a substantial quantity of flavourful buds from an autoflowering variety.

Banana Kush Cake is a robust and compact cultivar boasting a sturdy posture and a sizable apical stem. Its distinct autoflowering characteristics make it an ideal choice for growers in cooler climates with higher precipitation levels. After harvest, Banana Kush Cake yields dense conical buds distinguished by their swollen calyxes and vibrant orange pistils, making it a visually striking addition to any collection.

This indica-dominant strain is known for its calming effects on the body, accompanied by a mild euphoric and uplifting high that can boost energy levels and creativity. Banana Kush Cake is characterised by a skunky aroma with hints of sweet citrus and banana, which is where it derives its name. Its dominant flavours include refreshing notes of sweet citrus, ripe banana, and creamy brown sugar combined with spicy charas.

5. Purple Skunk

Sensi Seeds Research strains boast impressive genetics, and Purple Skunk Automatic is no exception. With a genetic makeup of 75% indica and 25% sativa, it is a hybrid of Hindu Kush Auto, Shiva Skunk, and Skunk #1. As the name suggests, the buds have a high concentration of anthocyanins, which display a multitude of purples throughout the flowering stage. Purple Skunk Automatic maintains a compact size throughout its growth cycle, making it an ideal choice for those with limited space.

The Purple Skunk strain boasts a dense central bud that is heavy and oversized, coated in trichomes and adorned with a rich purple hue. With just eight weeks of flowering, this cultivar is remarkably tough and resilient, able to flourish in any Italian garden. For those cultivating marijuana outdoors in the Northern Regions, such as Lombardy, Veneto, and Piedmont, the lower temperatures in the final stage of flowering can aid in bringing out the beautiful purple shades.

Growers should note that as the Purple Skunk Automatic plants approach harvest time, their skunky, earthy, and moist aroma with a hint of sweetness and exotic sandalwood becomes more pronounced. This is due to the strain’s lineage, which includes three indica-powerhouses, resulting in a high that leans towards indica. Users often report feeling an intense, long-lasting, soothing effect that relaxes them without causing couchlock.

6. White Diesel Haze

White Diesel Haze is a popular sativa-dominant hybrid created by breeding Diesel with the indica-dominant White Widow. Due to its unique characteristics, this strain has gained popularity for indoor and outdoor cultivation in Italy. Unsurprisingly, this strain has become a favourite among cannabis enthusiasts!

White Diesel Haze is a strain known for its ease of cultivation and maintenance. It has a compact structure and a delightful fruity flavour profile. The buds of this strain are usually dense and covered in resinous trichomes, with dark green foliage and fiery orange pistils. Although it has a long flowering time of 65 days, the strain can yield significant results. You can also use training techniques like SCROG, SOG, and supercropping to increase your yields.

With a robust diesel-like fragrance and subtle notes of citrus and earthiness, the aroma of White Diesel Haze is intricate and complex. The flavour profile is similar, with a dominant diesel taste accompanied by sweet and tangy undertones. This strain’s high cannabinoid levels contribute to strong cerebral and uplifting effects, with users reporting increased focus and creativity, making it an ideal choice for daytime use.

7. Blueberry Zkittlez Automatic

Blueberry Zkittlez Automatic was introduced into our collection in 2022, quickly gaining widespread popularity among Italian consumers. This strain’s genetic heritage comprises Blueberry, NL #5, Skunk Kush, and Durban. The buds are characterised by their delightfully fruity taste, complemented by hints of cacao and sandalwood. Additionally, it delivers a relaxing and all-encompassing high. Blueberry Zkittlez Automatic is a compact, low-maintenance hybrid that is easy to cultivate.

It is a visually striking plant with a compact structure, tightly spaced internodes, and one dominant central cola. During the flowering phase, purple tones can be observed beneath the layer of thick, large-headed trichomes. The plant’s compact structure is filled with dense buds, while bright orange stigmas adorn the green and purple plant material below. Blueberry Zkittlez Automatic is a hardy strain that can flourish throughout Italy, from the northern regions of Lombardy to Apulia and Sicily.

As the Blueberry Zkittlez Automatic is harvested and cured, it emanates a beautiful blend of fragrances. Its aroma is intricate, multifaceted, and energising, with a sweet and fruity scent that is complemented by hints of grapefruit and chocolate on the palate’s back end. Being a well-balanced hybrid, the initial cerebral euphoria induced by Blueberry Zkittlez Automatic gradually fades into a soothing body relaxation that promotes a mild sedative feeling and induces drowsiness.

Another serving of Gelato?

Undoubtedly, there are numerous other exceptional cannabis strains being grown throughout Italy, and the ones mentioned here are just a small selection of what’s available. We want to thank the Italian growing community for their dedicated efforts. It’s delightful to witness the impact of the community on the European cannabis scene. With an increasing number of Growdiaries, cannabis expos, and trade shows in Italy, we eagerly anticipate what the future holds for Italy.

  • Disclaimer:

    Laws and regulations regarding cannabis cultivation differ from country to country. Sensi Seeds therefore strongly advises you to check your local laws and regulations. Do not act in conflict with the law.

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3rd coast genetics

World’s best seeds and clones to grow in 2024




Attention, America’s terp army of weed gardeners. It’s time to lock and load.

Ignore the freezing winter outdoors. Valentine’s Day marks the beginning of germination season indoors for the 2024 outdoor full-sun run in North America. The world’s most elite, tasty, potent, and beautiful weed isn’t going to grow itself. You need to scoop the perfect seeds for your situation—this week!

Feast thine eyes on this fine directory of magic beans, Terp Army. It’s distilled from dozens of queries to the world’s winningest, most reputable breeders.

Thanks to the federal legalization of cannabis seeds, it’s never been easier to stand on the shoulders of greatness and grow a pound. Growers from legal New York, Missouri, Ohio, and hopefully soon Washington can let fweedom ring this year.

Welcome to the World’s best seeds and clones to grow in 2024. Let’s get gardening!

Hot-hot new-new from the top dogs

We begin with a smoking hot display of pure hype—the true tokes of the town. 

Seed Junky Genetics

Make your mark on 2024: Permanent Marker S1. (Courtesy Seed Junky Genetics)

Leafly Strain of the Year 2023 Permanent Marker colonizes the country in 2024. LA breeder Seed Junky Genetics has enabled direct-to-consumer sales of Permanent Marker S1, or bred to itself. Also scoop Scented Marker, Malibu Marker, and Cherry Ztripez. For pro indoor growers only.


Coming in Spring 2024, the Cap Junky cross, Coolio. (Courtesy Capulator)
Coming in Spring 2024, the Cap Junky cross, Coolio. (Courtesy Capulator)

The LA maker of MAC1, Capulator, keeps digging into Leafly Strain of the Year 2023 runner-up Cap Junky with Coolio (Cap Junky x Caps Frozen Oranges); scheduled for Spring 2024. 

Coolio #18 tastes like orange oil and paint thinner.


“After a long hard day of work, hitting the #18 makes me want to hit the heavy bag, go for a 10-mile bike ride, and then stay up until 3 a.m. working on the creative side of my business. It’s super-productive and uplifting. Probably my favorite smoke at the moment.” 

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Cap also plans two clone drops of Chadberry and Big Buns. Chadberry is GMO x Chillz that he calls “super-happy giggle weed that reeks like chemberries.”


How to order weed delivery online with Leafly

Wonderbrett’s ByrdSeed

Also in LA, Wonderbrett has released seeds for the first time as the brand Byrdseed Genetics. Get the new Cherry Crush, based off his stable of studs. Cherry Crush is Wonderbrett’s OZ Kush selection crossed with his Kush Cola and Seed Junky’s Jealousy (Leafly Strain of the Year 2022). 

Cookies Seed Bank and Cipher Genetics

In Northern California, global icon Cookies and their Cookies Seed Bank doubles up on the Lemon Cherry Gelato craze with Double Lemon Cherry. And Cookies’ Berner has been building with Cipher Genetics’ Chris Lynch, who has a line of Blue Lobster (Eye Candy x Apples & Bananas) crosses he’s prepping for the first half of 2024.

Compound Genetics

Panacea-grown Double Up from Compound Genetics for 2024. (Photo by, Courtesy of Compound Genetics)
Panacea-grown Double Up from Compound Genetics for 2024. (Photo by, Courtesy of Compound Genetics)

Compound Genetics and Node Labs have readied Double Up (Mellowz #8 & Gastro Pop #5) for a 2024 run.

“The resulting bud is some of the best we have ever seen,” said Compound. With notes of bubblegum, candy, fruit, and citrus, to kerosene and industrial chemicals.

Also don’t miss Compound’s The Scrooge, which is Jokerz #31 x The Menthol for a more minty, candy, and creamy thing.

Purple City Genetics

The Oakland clone and seed powerhouse Purple City Genetics’ current favorite is Curaçao—a cross of Maltese Orange (Lemon Tree Skorange x THC Bomb) x Caribbean Cookies. It’s purple, yields, tests over 30% and, “has a unique sour orange peel and cookie dough terp that makes her special. Super strong, but uplifting and mouth and nose coating right down to the last hit.”


Speaking of cloners, Phinest in Sacramento, CA rolls out Colorado breeder Cannarado’s Puffy Payton line of Gary Payton x Banana Puffy. Banana Puffy is Banana OG x Thin Mint. So this is cookie work with extra heavy yields for flower and hash.

Puffy Payton is the undisputed champ among this year’s bounty from Cannarado

Phinest, Sacramento, CA

Phinest states: “Purple shot through with orange and lime green, big banana terps. Consistently in the top quartile for wholesale pricing, Puffy is an elegant workhorse that is capturing the attention of NorCal growers and will surely be on the podium at the California State Fair this year, given its hash yield, funky banana terp profile (with a touch of the Gary) and bountiful trichome production.” See also: Cannarado’s Candyclysm.

Humboldt Seed Co

Leading off Humboldt Seed Co.’s hype train is Donutz (Lemon Cherry Gelato x GSC x OG). It tastes like glazed donuts and fuel, and will finish by Oct 5th to 10th outside. The automatic variety finishes in 80 days. Humboldt Seed Co is focusing on feminized seeds, so you don’t have a dude running through the gals in the garden. See also: Granny Candy.

Exotic Genetix

Exotic Genetix's Petrol Potion. (Courtesy Exotic Genetix)
Exotic Genetix’s Petrol Potion. (Courtesy Exotic Genetix)

Coming out of Washington, Exotic Genetix Mike has the gas for 2024 with Petrol Point, from his fresh line of Grape Jubilee crosses. See also: Twisted Terpz (Trop Runtz x Grape Jubilee).

Tiki Madman

And our 2023 Budtender’s Choice strain Devil Driver returns in Tiki Madman’s Pablo’s Private Reserve (Devil Driver x Pablos Revenge). Pablos Revenge has popped up on our radar as a Leafly Buzz: Hot strain of 2024. See also: Tiki Madman’s Disco Tiger (Grape Zoda x Zoo Runtz), Blue Gushers Bx, and Bacio Belts.

Sin City Seeds

Rip Tide unites Sin City Seeds' Blue Power with Surfr Seeds' Point Break. (Courtesy Sin City Seeds)
Rip Tide unites Sin City Seeds’ Blue Power with Surfr Seeds’ Point Break. (Courtesy Sin City Seeds)

One more huge release from a breeder-favorite—Las Vegas’ Sin City Seeds collabs with Surfr Seeds on Rip Tide (Point Break x Blue Power IX2). Point Break is citrusy, cakey Trop Cookies work. Blue Power is the power behind Apples and Bananas.


Leafly Buzz: 12 hot strains to smoke in 2024

The latest from the Z era

Candy terps reign supreme in 2024, whether it’s tropical taffy, blue raspberry, grape or grapefruit. 

Archive Seeds

The best Z work probably comes from Archive Seeds in Portland, OR with their Z-Face, and Zsunami. No one works as hard to refine their lines as Archive Seeds’ Fletch, and it shows.

Terp Hogz

Z originators TerpHogz offers GelonoidZ as feminized seed in 2024, as well as Grapefruit Zruntz. 

Wizard Trees

Leafly Strain of the Year 2023 runner-up RS-11 breeder. Wizard Trees has several crosses to Zangria or Studio 54 on their site. 

Clearwater Genetics

The highly regarded maker of modern Mai Tai, Clearwater Genetics, has Blue Razzicle crosses that look on-point; especially crossed to RS-11, BTY OG, Sherbanger, and Zoap. Sheesh!

More candy aisle flavors

Karma Genetics has a more unique Cheddar Zi, which is (Cheese/Biker) x (Z x ZiZi). 

—Chemdog popularizer chemdog and his Smash Hits brand in Boston has Z clones for the legal Massachusetts market. Grab Z Head (Z x Headbanger Kush) and Zour Diesel (Z x Sour Diesel). All will be available at Canna Provisions stores in Lee and Holyoke in Massachusetts.

Purple City Genetics of Oakland satisfies sweet teeth with Street Tarts—a mega-cross of Guava Tart (Grandi Guava x Caribbean Cookies [Guava x OGKB bx1] ) x Street Guru.

3rd Coast Genetics of Michigan wants you to grow more of our Leafly hot strain of 2024—Cadillac Rainbow—in seed form.

—Also going strong in 2024, Bloom Seed Co’s Z x Sherbanger hotness Candy Fumez #6 —the Harry Palms selection.

—And Atlas Seeds presents a Green Apple Candy with an intense ripe green apple nose. It came out of a Wedding Crasher x Dirty Sanchez project.

Green Apple Candy (Courtesy Atlas Seeds)
Green Apple Candy. (Courtesy Atlas Seeds)

GMOs, and other funky stuff

We’ll close out part one of our list with savories to counterbalance that sweet.

3rd Coast Genetics

3rd Coast Genetics in Michigan steps on the gas with Pure Michigan F2, and Black Truffle; building off the White Truffle craze.

Thug Pug

The Michigan maker of the beloved Peanut Butter Breath, Thug Pug, has worked that line to F3s. 

Skunk House Genetics

California Seed Bank Papa Burger. (Courtesy California Seed bank)
California Seed Bank Papa Burger. (Courtesy California Seed bank)

Skunk House Genetics former breeder California Seed Bank says to check out Papa Burger, which just took 1st in Legends of Hashish.

When you’re toughened up, seek out Southern Oregon breeder Kush Kirk’s Dragon’s Fist, or Compton, CA breeder Masonic Seeds’ Ultimate Garlic Bundle.

Phew! OK, we’re going to catch our breath and come back with Part 2, digging into Sours, OGs, Purps, Tangies, Sativas, Landraces, and Nostalgia cultivars. Lastly, Part 3 will be all about Hashers—strains that dump trichomes for BHO, live resin, rosin, live rosin, and dry sift! Download the app and turn on notifications to never miss a drop. Peace.

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