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Going Blind: The Debate on Cannabis Use for Glaucoma



Since the late 1900’s, a popular reason for medical marijuana use, is to treat glaucoma. Today, however, debate exists as to whether this is beneficial. Here’s the lowdown on cannabis for glaucoma.

What is glaucoma?

According to the American Academy of Ophthalmology, “Glaucoma is a disease that damages your eye’s optic nerve. It usually happens when fluid builds up in the front part of your eye. That extra fluid increases the pressure in your eye, damaging the optic nerve.”

It goes on to explain, “Your eye constantly makes aqueous humor. As new aqueous flows into your eye, the same amount should drain out. The fluid drains out through an area called the drainage angle. This process keeps pressure in the eye (called intraocular pressure or IOP) stable. But if the drainage angle is not working properly, fluid builds up. Pressure inside the eye rises, damaging the optic nerve.”

There are two types of glaucoma: open-angle, and narrow-angle. The more common version, open-angle, causes no vision changes at first. However, over time, an inability to properly drain this fluid in the eye, causes damage to accrue over time. Those who have this glaucoma, do not experience any pain.

Eye pressure test
Eye pressure test

The second version, narrow angle (or closed-angle), occurs in people whose iris is closer than it should be to the drainage angle. In this case, the iris can actually act as a block to proper drainage. If the iris blocks it completely (or mostly), pressure can build very fast, called an acute attack; and this can cause blindness very quickly. This kind of glaucoma often comes with eye pain, and feelings of sickness and headache. This kind of glaucoma can also build slowly, and often sufferers don’t know they have a problem, until the damage is done.

Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness for those 60 and above, and the second most prevalent cause of blindness worldwide; with about 60 million approximated cases. According to, more than three million Americans have it, but only about half know. Roughly 9-12% of these result in blindness, accounting for about 120,000 cases. This is a subject where African Americans sure don’t win out; as they are 6-8 times more likely than Caucasians to get glaucoma, and 15 times more likely to have vision impairment because of it.

Glaucoma damage cannot be reversed, and there is no medicine to cure it. Anyone can get it, including babies, but its more prevalent in older populations. It’s also very much genetic, and having family members who have it, means a greater probability of getting it. Diabetes, extreme nearsightedness, and being African American are other risk factors.

Cannabis and glaucoma

Long before cannabis re-entered the medical world as a possible treatment for a myriad of issues, it was still very much suppressed in terms of popular culture and medicine. However, in the early 1970’s, research started coming out indicating that cannabis could greatly help glaucoma sufferers from losing more vision.

The main reason for this connection, is that cannabis lowers intraocular pressures. Remember in the explanation of glaucoma, that the reason for damage is from rising intraocular pressures due to liquid not draining correctly, and building in the eye? Well, using cannabis keeps that from happening, or at least, decreases the amount of pressure. Now, before going on, to be clear, no one is contradicting this information. As in, it’s generally medically understood, that cannabis has this ability.

In 1978, the National Eye Institute began its own studies into the topic. This research produced results that indicated marijuana derivatives are able to briefly lower intraocular pressure; whether the plant is smoked, taken orally, or given intravenously. The organization did not find a benefit to topically applying it to the eye.

Can cannabis help with vision issues like glaucoma?
Can cannabis help with vision issues like glaucoma?

According to the article Marijuana and Glaucoma, published in Glaucoma Today, marijuana can lower intraocular pressure by 60-65%, but that this lasts for about 3-4 hours only. It also explains a dose-response relationship, whereby the amount consumed, is relational to the amount of pressure-reduction. However, greater amounts did not elongate the time frame of effectiveness.

One of the main reasons this caught on early, is because glaucoma medication have unwanted side-effects; then and now. These include (depending on medication): stinging, bleeding, burning, and itching of the eyes; fatigue; upset stomach; tingling hands and feet; memory problems; depression; lowered sex drive; shortness of breath; eye, and skin, color changes; drowsiness; frequent urination; droopy eyelids; and *lowered blood pressure – we’ll get to the importance of this one soon.

Why the debate over cannabis for glaucoma?

For as much as there is a known connection between cannabis and lowering eye pressures, its not an open and shut case. Perhaps this simply represents another example of official health platforms pushing people toward the pharmaceutical option; and maybe there is some value in the opposition. You can decide for yourself.

There are a couple issues with the use of cannabis for glaucoma. The first one is that it only works very temporarily. This could mean using it 6-10 times a day to keep pressure down. That’s a lot of getting stoned, and for people not interested in getting stoned, this is very problematic. It also means that if a person cannot take the weed frequently or regularly enough, then their pressures will go up and down; and there will be no consistency.

Along with this, there’s another issue. Glaucoma causes damage to the optic nerve from fluid building up. But other things, like low blood pressure, can also damage the nerve. Unfortunately, cannabis is often associated with lowering blood pressure. So it is possible that cannabis use can lower blood pressure enough to actually weaken the optic nerve more. However, remember that list of side effects? Pharmaceutical medications can lower blood pressure too, and they’re still used. Which makes it silly to point out cannabis for this.

What’s the uncomfortable problem here? There are no long-term studies. In fact, when you look up information on cannabis for glaucoma, while NO ONE argues that cannabis brings down pressures; somehow in all this time, no long-term or cohort studies were done. In fact, one paper which references progress into this topic, reported that as of 2006, despite constant complaints of having no long-term study, none were done. Now, nearly 20 years after that, and over 50 years after the first findings of cannabis lowering intraocular pressures, this still doesn’t exist.

Glaucoma is 2nd leading cause of worldwide blindness
Glaucoma is 2nd leading cause of worldwide blindness

Instead, you’ll find article after article positing ideas as to why it might or might not be okay for long-term use, but nothing more substantial. And that means that all these official health platforms are using the idea of blood pressure or being high, to rule it out; even though there’s no confirming information as to whether this possible dip in blood pressure, ever causes further issue.

So, let’s break it down. If a person doesn’t mind being high 24-hours a day, then using marijuana for glaucoma isn’t an issue in terms of getting high, so long as no tolerance to pressure-reducing effects is noted (and this can happen). Now, it could be an issue in terms of blood pressure reduction, but right now, that’s the part of this that’s unverified.

We simply don’t know if a reduction in blood pressure from cannabis can damage the optic nerve. In fact, one study referenced here, indicates that its higher blood pressure patients that see the biggest drop. Some of the studies in that review found a negligible effect on blood pressure altogether. If a specific patient doesn’t have a problem here, then it’s a moot point anyway; and if the FDA sees fit to use drugs like beta blockers (which also lower blood pressure) for treatment of the condition; then it seems this might not be the issue its made to sound like in the press.

For all the commentary out there, not one study exists that gives any insight as to whether the change in blood pressure from cannabis, can make glaucoma worse. And once again, this is now over 50 years after the introduction of cannabis to treat the condition; and an argument that takes place while pharmaceutical medications are prescribed, that are known to drop blood pressure.


If you’ve got glaucoma, you’re probably doing whatever you have to, to not go blind. For now, cannabis does provide a way to reduce pressures; however, there are certain factors which still after all this time, have not been appropriately examined at all.

As a side note, there is a new investigation into using DMT to treat glaucoma by way of a device that can apply the medicine directly to the eye. Those with the disorder should keep an eye on this story. All pun intended.

Welcome to the site! We appreciate you making your way to, a publication in the wellness space, here to bring you the best stories of today. Visit us regularly to keep up with the Joneses; and check out the Cannadelics Weekly Newsletter, for top-level product promos as well.

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Making Cannabis Oil In A Slow Cooker I Easy




What about combining the magic of the slow cooker with the benefits of cannabis!  A match made in chill heaven

Marijuana has become mainstream popular, but not as popular as the slow cooker. Over 70% of homes has one and the last major statistics reported in 2019 say approximately 11.6 million slow cookers were sold in the US and Canada.  The slow cooker, originally known as the crock pot, was introduced in the 40s and has become a staple for meals ever since.  But what about a different use? Making cannabis oil in a slow cooker is easy!

Cannabis oil has a ton of uses, from massage candles to pizza sauce, and the benefits from incorporating a little CBD into your diet are just as endless as its uses in cooking and salves.

Luckily, making cannabis-infused oil at home is super simple, especially if you have a slow cooker. The recipe is easy to remember: You’ll need two cups of an oil of your choosing for every ounce or ounce-and-a-half of weed. Adjust the marijuana amount to your liking, and choose whichever oil you enjoy the flavor of—coconut and olive oil work best, for their high fat content which absorbs all those good cannabinoids.

RELATED: Smoking Marijuana For The First Time: A Beginner’s Guide

Next, grab your slow cooker and throw the oil in there. In goes the weed next! Don’t panic over throwing an ounce of good bud in there, it’ll be great. Gently mix it up, cover, and cook on the lowest setting for three hours. Allow it to cool, then repeat the heating process again for a more potent infusing.

It’ll smell up the place, so make sure you’re in a friendly environment (or be ready to light a few non-infused candles).

When you’re satisfied with the potency, strain out the oil from the leaves. Now you’re ready to try any one of our oil-infused recipes!

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Black Market cannabis

Where’s the Money in the Weed Industry?




We’ve had legal recreational weed in the US to some degree since 2012; but the industry is quite unstable, with many going broke. So, where is all the money in the weed industry?

Is the weed industry working?

There are dispensaries pretty much everywhere in legal states. And a ridiculous amount of new products constantly coming out, which introduce new ways of using weed. None of us were using oil vapes a few years ago, for example, but its hard to bypass them now. This is the same for other products like shatter, or gummies, or pills. They didn’t exist, or only did in tiny amounts before dispensaries came around. Now they’re commonplace.

Plus, we know everyone is using weed. How do we know that? Because weed as an industry didn’t just pop up. It’s been around as a black market since the drug was first made illegal back in the early-mid 1900’s. It’s been the most popular illicit drug for decades. There was never a chance that legalizing it would diminish use, either. It hasn’t shown to increase it, but whatever status quo for use there was, still exists. Now we just have more ways to get it in us, and a variety of products we never dreamed of.

And we know that there’s tax money coming in. It’s hard to know when reading a headline, however, if the amount is a high amount per expectation, or low amount. Those ideas are not based off the actual amount, but in what the initial prediction for sales would be. So though the titles exist, the articles rarely give an indication as to whether the amount spoken of, is considered good by regulators. If its not, they don’t tend to want to say it.

Cannabis taxation
Cannabis taxation

Yes, the weed industry is working. But then, it also was before any recreational legalization took place. Perhaps ‘working’ is not the way to look at it. Perhaps its more about if its working as well as predicted? And, of course, this question only refers to legal markets. If you’re paying attention, you already know many companies are having problems – from dispensary owners, to cultivators, to product producers.

So if its working, and the product is available, and we’re all using it, why are there problems? And where does all the money go? Aren’t we all collectively smoking enough that weed should be a massively big industry, bringing in ungodly amounts of money? Well, it is… The real question is: ‘where is the money in the weed industry’? Far as I can tell, two places. And really in the end, it comes down to the second.

Corporate weed

A general reality of legal business is that those who cannot afford to be in operation, won’t be. While this goes for all businesses, legal or not; in legal industries it means a company having to comply with regulation measures. In the case of weed, this has been a constant issue, and caused many small business owners (and larger ones) to go under.

In terms of legal cannabis markets, the only operations to fundamentally do well, are the corporate ones. Big corporate companies like Trulieve, Curaleaf, and Tilray; which can pay the necessary fees, and which can even influence government practices and legalization efforts. Trulieve is behind Florida’s efforts to put recreational cannabis on 2024’s ballot. Trulieve knows it needs the sales, and this is a good way to get them.

Think of Walmart vs a mom-and-pop brand. Nearly all the time, Walmart wins out; even to the point of reducing an industry to just corporate players. And considering most states have regulatory measures that ensure a certain number of licenses (sometimes a majority) go to social equity applicants, (who are disadvantaged people from locations most affected negatively by drug wars); much of the competition for these big firms, are people with no money to begin with. In fact, such requirements have repeatedly been stifling industries, leaving only big players.

It often takes money to earn money, and the cannabis industry is a great example of how that happens. Essentially, only those that went into it with money in the first place, are reaping any rewards. Although even they often have problems. And this can be seen in company closures/sales, downsizing, and restructuring activities; which many big companies have had to do since getting involved in the industry.

Corporations are where much of the money in the weed industry is
Corporations are where much of the money in the weed industry is

While a few smaller brands like Cookies have been able to make it, there are very few stories like this. It’s very much a one-of-a-kind situation. Perhaps its not shocking that Cookies is often targeted, and no less for things like corruption; even as large companies seem to avoid such issues. This isn’t to say Cookies never did anything corrupt – I can’t speak to that. But whatever a smaller company like that did, will almost never compare to the corruption of bigger companies. Think Curaleaf and tainted products.

Cookies recently closed an LA store because of issues with a landlord, and it’s hard to know if anything more was behind this than standard landlord complaints. If anything, it seems the company takes a lot of flack; and my guess is that its because it’s a small player that got big enough to be competitive with big companies.

The black market weed industry

Corporations beat out the little guy, but they’re not the real answer. The most relevant answer to all of this, is that the black market is the biggest money-maker in the weed industry. In fact, when you look at any data about number of dispensaries, it becomes quite clear that the legal market can barely compete with the black market, anywhere in the US. And this doesn’t even account for cannabinoid products sold online, or in other non-dispensary locations.

A great example of this is California, which according to Forbes in early 2023, had all of 1,000 legalmdispensaries for a state of 40 million people. Yet, there are dispensaries all over the place. New York has the same issue. It’s a huge city, with all of 60 licenses for legal dispensaries given out as of September 2023; which was the same amount given out when first reported in the spring of last year. These are only licenses, and don’t mean there are 60 dispensaries yet. However, it was estimated the city has about 1,400+ illegal dispensaries. So less than 60 vs 1,400 plus.

Automatically this indicates a huge divide in terms of earnings between legal and illegal markets. If an illegal market has 23X the stores of a legal market, it can be generally assumed that the illegal market brings in 23X more. That’s just basic math; although it doesn’t account for size of stores or number of sales. Still says a lot, though. There might be tons of headlines about cannabis taxes rolling in, but logically, those taxes come from only a small percentage of sales. In no state do legal dispensary numbers come close to the number of illegal ones.

Perhaps this could’ve been different if every place to legalize, didn’t feel the need to adopt insane tax policies, and institute expensive and unnecessary regulation measures. But they did, and they still continue to despite these issues having such an obvious effect. I mean, really, we’re years in. And yet every new state to legalize, does the exact same thing by applying high taxes; along with laws that make opening dispensaries difficult.

Most dispensaries are black market
Most dispensaries are black market

So, where’s the money in the weed industry? It’s where it has been since cannabis was first made illegal: with the black market. And the only other companies to do well, are big corporate enterprises that can compete…and let’s be honest, they have so many problems that their futures aren’t much more stable than the little guys who keep going under.

The black market doesn’t have to worry about expensive regulatory and tax measures. While this can lead to some problems, like rising THC levels in products; it also means products are priced lower; and the prices can quickly change to stay competitive. There is no lack of dispensaries, or inability to get them up; and while this market keeps exploding out, states like New York and California, can’t manage to get dispensaries open. Beyond this, the entirety of the cannabinoids market (sold in dispensaries and beyond), is solely illicit – and its huge! No wonder the black market is where all the money is.


When recreational weed markets first opened, it was spoken about like it would be a gold rush. In reality, its mainly still a black market, with a small amount diverted to legal sales. And should legal systems keep instituting insane regulation policies; the legal segment is likely to get smaller and smaller in comparison to its black market counterpart.

Hello weed fans! We welcome you to, where we report on the most interesting cannabis and wellness stories of today. Keep us company by coming by frequently for updates; and head over to the Cannadelics Weekly Newsletter, for news and product promos, all in the same place.

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Can your cardio sabotage efforts to pass a drug test?




In Part I of this series, we learned how the endocannabinoid system regulates and responds to physical activity. The endocannabinoid system is crucial for generating the motivation to engage in voluntary exercise and exercise itself alters its sensitivity to cannabinoids. In Part II, we saw that endocannabinoid receptors are present in the lungs, heart, and blood vessels–key tissues for exercise performance. 

Endogenous cannabinoids are made from specific dietary fats and regulate various aspects of metabolism. Plant cannabinoids like THC are fat-soluble molecules and some of the THC you consume accumulates in adipose (fat) tissue. This suggests that the amount of body fat you have, and the rate at which you burn it off, could affect how quickly that THC gets released from fats stores into the bloodstream. 

Can burning off body fat actually lead to measurable changes in blood THC levels?

Effects of fasting & exercise on blood THC levels

Takeaway: THC is stored in fat, and burning fat releases it.

The effects of fasting and exercise have been measured in both animals and humans in a limited number of studies. One rodent study gave rats THC daily for five days, followed by a three-day “wash out.” After that, some were fasted for 24-hours. Compared to non-fasted rats, fasted rats had higher blood concentrations of THC-COOH, but not THC. THC-COOH is a metabolite of THC–what drug tests measure in urine samples. Elevated blood THC-COOH was also seen when rats fasted for 20 hours immediately following a single dose of THC.

Another rodent study gave rats THC daily for ten days (twice as long as the last study) followed by a 24-hour fast. Compared to non-fasted animals, higher blood levels of both THC and THC-COOH were detected in fasted animals, although the increase in THC was much smaller than for THC-COOH.

A limited number of human studies have looked at the effects of exercise and fasting on blood THC/THC-COOH levels in people. In a small study of six chronic, daily cannabis consumers, they did 45-minutes of moderate-intensity exercise (treadmill running) followed by a 24-hour fast. No significant elevation in either THC or THC-COOH was detected.

Why would this be, given the results of animal studies above showing an elevation of THC-COOH following fasting? One explanation is the duration of the study: humans live roughly thirty times longer than rats. A 24-hour fast for a rat is roughly equivalent to a month-long fast for a human. It’s possible that a short one-day fast in humans is not enough time to burn much fat.

There was a significant increase in blood THC levels, but not THC-COOH, immediately after exercise.

Another human study made additional observations that shed further light on the matter. Fourteen regular cannabis consumers had their blood tested before, immediately after, and two hours following 35 minutes of stationary bicycling. There was a significant increase in blood THC levels, but not THC-COOH, immediately after exercise. The effect normalized after two hours.

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Researchers made an additional, interesting observation: body mass index (BMI) was significantly correlated with the change in blood THC levels following exercise. Individuals with higher BMIs (more body fat) tended to see a larger spike in blood THC levels after exercise. This may explain why no change was detected in the previous study–those individuals had an average BMI of about 21, while the majority in this study had BMIs over 21.

The experiments in rodents found that fasting can produce elevations in blood THC-COOH levels, with little to no elevation in THC levels. In contrast, human studies found that a combination of exercise and fasting could elevate THC levels (but not THC-COOH), with larger elevations seen in those with higher BMIs. Why would human studies find an elevation in THC, but rodent studies see an elevation in THC-COOH? One possibility is drug metabolism. Rodents metabolize drugs much faster than we do, so there is perhaps less time for THC to accumulate in fat prior to being metabolized into THC-COOH. 


How to order weed delivery online with Leafly

Could burning fat get you high or make you fail a drug test?

Takeaway: Get you high? Maybe. Fail a drug test? Unlikely.

Assuming the results above in humans hold true—that blood THC levels can be elevated by fasting and exercise (at least in people with sufficient levels of body fat) — could burning body fat result in a psychoactive effect? 

It’s hard to be sure without more robust data, but it’s entirely possible.

In the study that detected an increase in blood THC levels in both fasted and non-fasted cannabis consumers following exercise, there was a roughly 15% increase in blood THC levels, on average. In a study that measured blood THC levels after vaporizing cannabis, a relatively low 10 mg dose of THC–enough to cause psychoactive effects in the majority of study participants–resulted in a ~10% average increase in blood THC levels. A higher 30 mg dose resulted in a ~30% increase. 

… a 15% increase in blood THC levels from exercise and fasting could conceivably induce a psychoactive effect.

So, a 15% increase in blood THC levels from exercise and fasting could conceivably induce a psychoactive effect. Unfortunately, the study that measured this blood THC increase following exercise/fasting did not also measure whether participants felt any psychoactive effects. 

Overall, these results suggest that those with more body fat may be vulnerable to higher levels of blood THC following fat burning. More fat to burn means more room to accumulate THC over time. One prediction here would be that longer durations of fasting or higher intensity exercise, resulting in more fat burn, could induce greater increases in blood THC levels, especially in those with more body fat. 


New Year, New Laws: Weed workers’ rights kick in, and more

As far as the drug testing concern goes, the results of human studies suggest that there would be no elevated risk of failure, as blood THC-COOH levels—what urine tests look for—were not elevated following fasting and exercise in humans. It’s conceivable that more intensive exercise or longer fasts might push up THC-COOH levels, but I’m not aware of any studies looking at this. 

Cannabinoids are fatty molecules—our own endogenous cannabinoids are made from dietary fats, and plant cannabinoids can be stored in fat tissue and influence our eating behavior and metabolism. It’s worth knowing about these things as you engineer your lifestyle and craft intentions for the new year.

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