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How to Grow Autoflowers from Seed to Harvest



autoflowers from seed to sale

Autoflowers are a highly robust species of cannabis that are renowned for their ability to flower without the reliance on light cycles. To grow autoflowers successfully, it’s important to understand the key factors that contribute to their growth and health. Whether it’s carefully implementing low-stress training techniques or selecting the right soil, there are many steps you can take to enhance your autoflower cultivation experience. From choosing the best strains for your environment to optimizing your light cycles, the secrets to successful autoflower growth are waiting to be uncovered.

What type of autoflower should I grow?

Autoflowering seeds come in a variety of strains, each offering its own unique appearance, effects, and yields. The three main types of cannabis strains are indica, sativa, and ruderalis. Indica strains are known for their relaxing, sedative effects and are often used for medicinal purposes. Sativa strains, on the other hand, are known for their uplifting and energetic effects and are commonly used for recreational purposes. Ruderalis strains, the wild ancestor of indica and sativa, are known for their hardy growth habits and fast flowering times (all autoflowering strains contain ruderalis genetics).

It’s important to understand the differences between these strains to make informed decisions about which type of autoflowering cannabis to grow. Indica strains tend to grow short and bushy, making them ideal for smaller growing spaces. Sativa strains, on the other hand, grow tall and thin, making them ideal for larger growing operations. Ruderalis strains are highly adaptable and can thrive in a range of conditions.

No matter which strains you choose, autoflowering cannabis is a versatile and convenient choice for gardeners of all levels. With their easy-to-grow nature and quick flowering times, autoflowering cannabis is the perfect addition to any gardener’s collection.

What are the best light cycles to grow autos?

To achieve optimal growth and yields with autoflowering strains it’s crucial to understand the importance of light cycles. A balanced regimen of light and darkness is essential, as it triggers the plant’s flowering and maturing processes. Generally, an 18-hour light cycle and a 6 hour dark cycle is recommended, with a gradual reduction of light towards the end of the flowering stage to promote bud development. However, autoflowers are unique in that they can thrive under either 18/6, 20/4 or even 24 hours of light. Experimenting with different light schedules may also be beneficial, depending on your particular strain and growing conditions. By providing your autoflowers with the right light cycles, you’ll be rewarded with a bountiful harvest of premium quality buds.

What type of soil should I use to grow autoflowers?

Cannabis is a complicated plant, if you want to achieve huge yields then just using whatever soil you have in your garden may not be the best idea. The key to a good soil is to make sure it has good drainage, is light and airy and full of natural nutrients. Soils containing compost, bat guano and worm castings are all excellent natural additives that provide a balanced and regular supply of organic nutrients to your cannabis plant. Soils that contain lots of clay will usually be too heavy and dense which can prevent the roots of a cannabis plant from expanding. If your soil is too dense you can amend it using things such as perlite and vermiculate to create pockets of air and improve drainage. It is also very important that you check the pH level of your soil, it should be between 6.0 and 7.0 although the perfect range is 5.8-6.2 so the closer you can get to this the better off your plants will be.

What kind of plant pots should I use for my autoflower grow?

Choosing the right containers for your plants is a critical decision. The type of pot you choose can impact root development, water retention, and overall plant health. A breathable material, such as fabric or plastic, is ideal for pots, as it allows for air to circulate and prevents water from becoming trapped. Additionally, choosing pots that are the appropriate size for your plants will ensure they have enough room for root growth and prevent any overcrowding. Consider using pots with drainage holes to prevent waterlogging and ensure that your plants receive adequate hydration. By carefully selecting the right pots, you’ll provide your autoflowers with the ideal environment to thrive and flourish.

What is the best way to germinate autoflowers?

To get the best possible germination rates it is best to pre germinate cannabis seeds before planting them in soil. There are various methods used to germinate seeds, possibly the most basic and successful way to do so is using paper towels. Here is a step-by-step approach of how to germinate cannabis seeds using the paper towel approach.

Soak the seeds in water: Place your autoflowering seeds in a bowl of warm water and let them soak for about 30 minutes.

Prepare the paper towels: Take two paper towels and moisten them with distilled water. Squeeze out any excess water so the towels are damp but not soaking wet.

Place the seeds on the paper towels: Arrange your soaked seeds on one of the damp paper towels and fold the other towel over them, sandwiching the seeds in between.

Store the paper towels: Place the paper towels with the seeds inside a plastic bag or a container with a lid. Make sure the container is kept in a warm and dark place.

Monitor the seeds: Check on the seeds every 12-24 hours and make sure the paper towels remain moist. If they start to dry out, mist them with water.

Germination: In about 24-48 hours, the seeds should start to germinate and you’ll see the roots starting to emerge. At this point, you can plant them in soil or rockwool cubes.

Grow: Once the seeds have germinated, keep them in a warm and bright place and make sure they receive enough water and nutrients. Your autoflowering plants will start to grow and flower on their own in a few weeks.

How long does it take for autoflowers to grow?

Growing weed can be divided into 3 main growth stages, seedling, vegetative and flowering. With each type of cannabis strain taking different amounts of time in each stage, how long it takes to grow weed varies from strain to strain. Autoflowering strains are known for their fast turnaround time from seed to harvest. Most autos will be ready to harvest in as little as 8-10 with some sativa dominant strains taking up to 12 weeks to finish. This speed makes them a popular choice for indoor growers with limited space, as well as outdoor growers who want to get multiple harvests in one season. The exact length of the growing cycle will depend on several factors, including the strain, the growing conditions, and the overall health of the plants. With proper care and attention, cultivators can often achieve healthy and abundant harvests in a relatively short period of time.


How to grow autoflowers during the seedling stage (weeks 0 – 1)

Growing autoflowering cannabis during the seedling stage requires careful attention to light, water, and temperature. Keep the seedlings in a warm and bright place, but away from direct sunlight. Ensure they receive adequate hydration, but don’t overwater, as this can lead to root rot. Provide a balanced source of nutrients to promote healthy growth, and be patient as your seedlings mature and establish strong root systems. With a little care and attention, you’ll be rewarded with thriving and robust autoflowering plants.

How to grow autoflowers during the vegetative stage (weeks 1 – 4)

The vegetative stage is an important time for the growth and development of your autoflowering cannabis plants. It is during the veg stage that a plant does most of its growing and builds its physical structure that will later be used to hold its buds. To ensure a successful harvest, it’s crucial to provide them with plenty of light and nutrients. Try using low-stress training techniques to encourage bushier growth and keep an eye on the plants’ height to prevent excessive stretching. Adequate water and air flow are also essential, so make sure the plants receive enough of both. With proper care and attention, your autoflowering plants will thrive during the vegetative stage and be well on their way to producing a bountiful harvest. As always, be patient and watch your plants grow and flourish with each passing day.

How to grow autoflowers during the flowering stage (weeks 4 – 10)

The flowering stage is the period when your autoflowers begin to bloom and produce those all-important buds. If you want to produce a high yielding autoflowering cannabis plant then it is important to provide them with the right light and nutrient levels during this stage. It is during the flowering period that a plant will start to produce bud, so it’s vital that you grow room has good air circulation and humidity levels to prevent mold and mildew from wreaking havoc on your grow. During the flowering stage you need to regularly check up on your plants and keep an eye out for any signs of mold, stress or pests. Any issues as this stage of the grow need to dealt with swiftly so that the plant can continue to focus as much of its energy to growing bud.

How and when to flush autoflowers

Flushing your cannabis grow is the process of removing any excess nutrients left stored within the plant before it is harvested. Not all growers flush their weed, for those of you using organic nutrients to grow then it isn’t necessary, but we feel it’s important for any growers using synthetic nutrients as it not only improves the taste but also removes any potentially harmful nutrients that have built up in the plant. It’s recommended to flush your cannabis plants with pH adjusted water 3-5 days before harvest to allow enough time for the excess nutrients to leach out of the soil. Flushing is an important step in the cultivation process and can help to improve the overall quality and taste of your weed.

How and when to feed autoflowers

Autoflowering plants should receive a balanced source of nutrients throughout their growth cycle, starting from the seedling stage. Gradually increase the nutrient levels as the plants mature, and adjust according to the plants’ needs. Always follow the manufacturer’s guidelines, and avoid over-fertilization, which can lead to nutrient burn and harm the plants. Feed your autoflowering plants at regular intervals and monitor their growth closely to ensure they receive the proper nutrients for optimal health and growth.

How to increase autoflower yields

There are various methods that growers use to train autoflowers to increase yield, these methods are put into two categories, low stress training (LST) and high stress training (HST). LST training is best suited to autoflowers because it causes minimal stress to the plant and therefore disrupts its growth cycle much less than HST would. Low-Stress Training involves carefully bending and tying down the plants to encourage them to grow bushier and more evenly. Three common techniques include ScrOG (Screen of Green), SOG (Sea of Green), and the ‘Tie and Bend’ method. ScrOG involves using a screen to guide the plants, while SOG focuses on planting many small plants closely together. The ‘Tie and Bend’ method is a simple technique that involves tying down the branches and bending them downwards to promote a fuller, bushier growth. With a little care and attention, LST training can help you achieve a larger and more abundant harvest from your autoflowering plants.

Are autoflowers good for beginners?

Autoflowering strains are a great choice for novice growers because how easy they are to grow and how robust they are. Compared to photoperiods they require minimal attention, and their ability to flower automatically eliminates the need for adjusting light cycles. Autoflowers are also smaller in size and faster to flower which makes ideal for anyone growing indoors with limited space. However, it’s still essential to understand the basic requirements for growing cannabis, such as providing the proper light, nutrients, and growing conditions to ensure a successful harvest.

What is the average yield from an autoflower?

The average yield from an autoflowering cannabis plant varies depending on several factors, including the strain, growing conditions, and overall health of the plant. On average, indoor growers can expect a yield of around 4-6 ounces per plant, while outdoor growers may see yields of up to 12 ounces or more. With proper care and attention, experienced cultivators can often achieve higher yields from their autoflowers, especially with techniques such as LST training and providing the proper nutrients. Regardless of the yield, autoflowers are a popular choice for growers due to their ease of growing and relatively quick turnaround time from seed to harvest.

How often should you water autoflowers?

There isn’t a hard and fast rule on the frequency to which you should water cannabis plants. As you grow and become more experienced you will learn to gage when a plant needs more water from the look of the plant or feel of the soil. Its difficult to give an exact answer to how often a plant needs watering as it depends on a number of factors, including the size of the plant, the temperature and humidity in your grow area, and the soil moisture level. As a general rule, it’s recommended to water autoflowers when the top inch of soil is dry to the touch. Over-watering can be as damaging as under-watering, so it’s important to ensure proper drainage and avoid leaving the roots in standing water. It’s also a good idea to monitor the leaves for signs of stress or wilting, which can indicate the need for more frequent watering.





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How Did You Mess Up Your Cannabis Subchapter S Election?




The internet is littered with writings on the relative merits of corporate forms and tax elections for cannabis businesses. Even the best of these articles are as dull as ditchwater, because the topic is tax. Most of the authors mention subchapter S taxation at some point, and the showier ones may even dredge up cannabis tax court opinions on the topic. This post doesn’t get into any of that. Instead, it asks the simple question: how did you mess up your cannabis subchapter S election?

What’s a subchapter S election?

Feel free to skip this section, which is boring, if you already know what an S election is, how it works, etc. If you don’t, I’ll cover this at a very broad, borderline irresponsible level– just to get us through. Please note that the same rules apply here for cannabis businesses as non-cannabis businesses.

An S election is just a business’s determination to be taxed according to a certain part of the Internal Revenue Code. We’re talking about subchapter S here (open to corporations and LLCs), as opposed to subchapter C (also for corporations and LLCs), or subchapter K (partnerships and LLCs only).

An S corporation passes its income, losses, deductions and credits to shareholders for federal tax purposes. Unlike a C corp, the S corp doesn’t pay federal income tax. It is a “pass through.” Note that every S corp begins its life as a C corp, and every S corp once filed something with the IRS called a Form 2553 to gain its new chapter status.

An LLC can also elect to be taxed under subchapter S. Unlike the converting C corp, the converting LLC files two forms: a Form 8832, then the 2553. People are sometimes surprised that an LLC can do this, because LLCs already pass their income, losses, etc., through to owners for federal tax purposes. But, under subchapter S, owners can often take earnings out of the business without paying employment taxes.

There are plenty of other reasons both corporations and LLCs elect to be taxed under subchapter S, either at formation or at some point during their lifecycles. I can tell you that cannabis retailers should stay away from subchapter S as a general rule. Cannabis growers and processors taxed under subchapter S are rare birds as well, but sometimes it makes sense. More on that below.

How did you mess up your cannabis subchapter S election?

I’ve had the displeasure of asking this question to clients a half dozen times over the years. That’s a very small percentage of clients at this point, but it tends to be memorable. Below are three ways this can happen.

  1. Miscommunication

There’s a reason that CPAs usually ask to see a company’s governance documents before filing a tax election or preparing a return. The CPA needs to know if what they’re advising or being asked to do makes sense. Often, the ownership or structure of a company may be incompatible with subchapter S taxation. For example, a stock ledger may show non-U.S. shareholders or nonviable shareholder trusts; or an LLC operating agreement may delineate multiple classes of units.

On two occasions, I’ve designed waterfalls for cannabis LLCs only to learn those LLCs ended up making subchapter S elections. The owner agreements and tax filings were fundamentally at odds in each case. One of those busted elections came to light in litigation; the other came up when somebody left the company. Neither was satisfactorily “fixed” to my knowledge.

  1. Missed deadlines

Various deadlines must be observed when electing subchapter S status. It can get pretty complicated for corporations; less so for LLCs. In my experience, founders often miss these deadlines because there is so much going on when starting a company. Late filing relief is often available, but this involves triage, extra paperwork and ultimately, expense. It’s best to calendar any tax filing deadlines upon incorporating or organizing, run down requisite tax advice, and timely file.

  1. You actually made the election

Sometimes, you can mess up an S election by… timely filing an S election. Again, most cannabis businesses are not taxed under subchapter S for a reason.

In the case of a cannabis retailer, subchapter C is almost always preferred, because this prevents non-deductible expenses resulting from IRC § 280E from passing through to owners. Staying in subchapter C avoids the devastating situation of taxable income to owners on paper, but no real earnings.

Other plant-touching cannabis businesses may decline to make an S election for any number of reasons. Most commonly, a business will be capitalized disproportionately or just “differently” by co-owners (e.g., cash versus services; lots of cash versus a little cash; equity versus debt). These businesses may wish to allocate income in ways that simply can’t work under Subchapter S. Yet, they’ve made a subchapter S election with no appreciation of constraints.

You don’t have to mess up your cannabis subchapter S election

Tax is complex, but it isn’t always complicated. Roadmaps abound in the cannabis business space. If you’re a cannabis business owner looking at subchapter S, the best advice is to: 1) screen your ownership structure; 2) sketch out capital outlays and cash flows, and the way you want money to move through the business; and 3) talk to your legal and tax advisers so that everyone is on the same page. It’s no fun to mess up a Subchapter S election! But it’s also not hard to avoid.

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Let Cannabis Legalization Be Done State-By-State with No Federal Legalization?




Rupublicans marijuana plans

Republican senators, including the lead GOP sponsor of a bipartisan marijuana banking bill, are gearing up to introduce new legislation designed to thwart any federal legalization of marijuana by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) without explicit approval from Congress.


Senators Leading the Charge


The fight against potential federal marijuana legalization without congressional permission is being led by Senators Cynthia Lummis of Wyoming (R-WY) and Steve Daines of Montana (R-MT). Regarding cannabis policy, Senator Lummis has continuously defended states’ rights, firmly believing that state-by-state decisions on cannabis legalization should prevail over federal directives. She is committed to preserving state autonomy in cannabis policy, evidenced by her consistent opposition to federal legalization.


Senator Steve Daines, representing Montana, has been a prominent figure in advocating for cannabis banking reform. He plays a central role in the upcoming legislation and sponsors the SAFER Act, which addresses the pressing issue of banking access for state-licensed cannabis businesses. Daines’s dual involvement highlights his dedication to creating a safer and more legitimate financial environment for the cannabis industry while navigating the complexities of federal cannabis policy.


Senators Lummis and Daines represent a growing faction of Republicans who support states’ rights and resist excessive federal intervention in cannabis matters. Their leadership in this legislative endeavor is poised to shape the trajectory of marijuana policy in the United States, focusing on preserving states’ authority to determine their cannabis laws.


The Legislative Landscape and Implications


14 House and Senate Republicans have urged the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to oppose the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) recommendation that marijuana be rescheduled. Senators Daines and Lummis were noticeably absent from the letter’s list of signatories.


Whether restrictions on reclassifying marijuana within the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) or a specific mention of the de-scheduling of marijuana from the CSA are included in this upcoming legislation, as well as how it will prohibit the FDA from potentially legalizing marijuana, are all unknowns. In most cases, “legalization” refers to excluding marijuana from the CSA.


While the FDA has endorsed a cannabis-derived CBD medication and a synthetic THC drug, it generally refrains from endorsing holistic or plant-based remedies. If the HHS suggested rescheduling marijuana, it would remain federally prohibited, except for medical use with a doctor’s prescription.


Efforts to obtain further details regarding this impending bill were made, with a spokesperson for Senator Daines directing inquiries to Senator Lummis’s office. However, immediate responses from the latter’s representatives were unavailable.


This announcement was appended to the statements about the SAFER Banking Act introduced on Wednesday. Senator Daines emphasised provisions within the SAFER Banking Act that he helped secure during bipartisan negotiations, designed to shield all legal enterprises from what he perceives as the “woke agenda” of the left.


While the primary focus of the SAFER Banking Act revolves around granting state-licensed cannabis businesses access to conventional financial services, Senators Daines and Lummis highlighted aspects of the legislation intended to prevent federal regulators from taking discriminatory enforcement actions against other sectors, such as the firearms industry.


Senator Lummis contended that Wyoming energy companies frequently face threats from “woke” Environmental and Social Governance (ESG) initiatives, potentially jeopardising their access to banking services and loans. The SAFER Banking Act prevents federal bank regulators from compelling banks or credit unions to terminate accounts based on reputation risk, safeguarding energy firms and gun manufacturers from left-wing challenges to their operations.


Senator Daines’s focus on the bill’s banking regulations provisions and his sponsorship of FDA and marijuana legalization legalization  could suggest an attempt to distance himself from the broader marijuana reform movement, notwithstanding his state’s 2020 ballot approval of adult-use legalization.


The SAFER Banking Act is expected to have strong bipartisan support in committee and on the floor, according to individuals like Sherrod Brown, the chairman of the Senate Banking Committee and Chuck Schumer, the majority leader of the Senate (both Democrats). When the legislation reaches the Senate floor, Schumer plans to attach amendments to enable state-level cannabis expungements and support firearms rights for medicinal cannabis patients; Senator Daines has previously expressed openness to this strategy.


On the House side, a well-known Democrat proposed a plan to legalize, tax, and regulate marijuana on a federal level. The bill also included provisions for expunging earlier convictions for cannabis usage.


The Stance of the FDA and Challenges Ahead


Historical FDA Caution: Over the years, the FDA has maintained a cautious stance regarding cannabis, especially its natural, plant-based form. While the agency has approved specific cannabis-derived medicines, it has hesitated to endorse broader cannabis legalization or rescheduling. Instead, the FDA’s primary focus has been on ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, resulting in a reluctance to embrace holistic or plant-based remedies like marijuana.


Federal Prohibition and HHS Advice: The problem has become more complicated due to the recent HHS (Health and Human Services) suggestion to reschedule marijuana. Acceptance of this recommendation could result in modifications to the Controlled Substances Act’s (CSA) federal classification of marijuana. To be clear, marijuana will likely continue to be federally illegal for recreational use even if it is rescheduled, except for medical uses that a doctor has approved.


Challenges and Uncertainties: The impending legislation championed by Senators Lummis and Daines faces numerous challenges and unresolved issues. Key questions remain, including whether the bill will specifically address rescheduling or de-scheduling marijuana within the CSA and how it intends to prevent the FDA from pursuing marijuana legalization without Congress’s explicit approval. The term “legalization” typically implies removing marijuana from the CSA, a significant step toward federal acceptance. The lack of detailed information about the bill’s mechanics leaves critical aspects, such as preserving states’ rights in shaping cannabis laws, uncertain. In this intricate landscape, the FDA’s regulatory stance and adaptability to evolving perceptions of marijuana will play a pivotal role. While Senators Lummis and Daines advocate for legislative measures to safeguard state autonomy, scrutiny of the FDA’s approach to marijuana will continue among stakeholders in the cannabis industry and beyond. As the legislative process unfolds, the complexities and challenges of federal cannabis policy reform will come to the forefront, ultimately shaping the future of marijuana legalization in the United States.


Bottom Line


As Senators Lummis and Daines lead the charge against potential federal marijuana legalization without congressional approval, the role of the FDA looms large in this unfolding legislative battle. While historical caution from the FDA persists, recent recommendations from the HHS add complexity to the cannabis landscape.


This legislative effort faces various difficulties, including uncertainties about the bill’s details and how it will protect states’ rights. As the FDA’s regulatory stance continues to be a significant component, the future of marijuana legalization in the United States will be formed by a complicated interplay of federal and state authorities and changing attitudes toward cannabis. The road ahead promises to be both complicated and transformational, with big changes in federal cannabis legislation possible.





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What is Hypersynchrony? – New Study Looks at What is Going on in Your Brain When You are Tripping Balls




hypersychrony psychedelics

Ah. Altered states of consciousness. For those of us who have experienced it in our lifetime, it’s definitely one of the best things about being human.


These altered states of consciousness simply refer to times when we have mental states that are not ordinary; there are moments when our sense of time and space is distorted due to pleasure, psychedelics, meditation, sexual intercourse, and much more. These days, there has been a lot of interest going on in the world of psychedelics, given that psilocybin as well as ketamine, LSD, and other hallucinogenic drugs are having a second heyday.


Altered states of consciousness can also be called many different things. To other people, these are mystical experiences, a form of ego dissolution, a trip down the rabbit hole, an awakening, a metaphysical experience… the list goes on. But what exactly goes on in the brain?


Despite the growing body of studies and clinical trials done, we still know very little about psychedelics and how they induce altered states of consciousness, which are oftentimes a precursor to healing, therapeutic experiences, and even recreation. Generally speaking, altered states induce significant changes in cognition, time and space perception, and even visions. That said, the altered states of consciousness brought about by psychedelic use are so varied from one person to another, that it can hardly be standardized or pinned down.


This has piqued the curiosity of researchers for a long time.


And recently, a group of investigators had some success in identifying what occurs in the brain when we consume psychedelics, which leads to altered states of consciousness. This groundbreaking study was conducted by researchers from Sweden’s Lund University.


For this study, researchers used live rats as well as a technique they developed to measure electrical signals taken from 128 various parts of the rats’ brains all at the same time. This was done by implanting arrays with microelectrodes and wires into different regions of the brain. The arrays were critical in allowing the researchers to measure local field potentials (LFPs), which are electrical signals taken from thousands of neurons.


Additionally, various psychoactive substances were injected into the rats. This included ketamine, LSD, phencyclidine, and DOI.


“Consciousness is one of those fundamental questions that have always fascinated me. I think that psychedelics is a great tool to study the neural basis of consciousness in laboratory animals, since we share most of the same neural ‘hardware’ with other mammals,” explains Par Halje, study author. Halje is also a neurophysiology researcher and cognitive scientist at Lund University.


They found some fascinating results, most especially the fact that high-frequency oscillations were taking place at the same time in different parts of the brain. They recorded signals from different brain regions that were almost in sync, though delays occurred that were under a millisecond. The one-of-a-kind synchronization was a surprising discovery for the researchers.


“We assumed that a single brain structure was generating the waves and that it spread to other locations,” Halje told Psypost. “But instead, we saw that the waves went up and down almost simultaneously in all parts of the brain where we could detect them – a phenomenon called phase synchronization.” This meant that even though the brain cells were acting differently when exposed to different psychedelic drugs such as ketamine and LSD, it had an impact in the greater activity affecting brain communication, resulting in quick and synchronized signals.


“One might think that a strong wave starts somewhere, which then spreads to other parts of the brain,” explains Halje. “But instead, we see that the neurons’ activity synchronises itself in a special way – the waves in the brain go up and down essentially simultaneously in all parts of the brain where we are able to take measurements,” says Halje. “Likely, this hyper-synchrony has major effects on the integration of information across neuronal systems and we propose that it is a key contributor to changes in perception and cognition during psychedelic drug use,” write the authors.


Other Studies


This area of study is still so mysterious, but the theories we have today are no less as interesting than the phenomenon itself.


Aside from the Lund University study, there have been other efforts to understand what goes on when we get high on psychedelic drugs and go into non-normal mental states. The exact process that occurs when our consciousness gets transported to another dimension may not be clearly understood yet, but a lot of it has to do with 5-HT2A, a serotonin receptor. Many psychedelics including psilocybin, ayahuasca, and LSD activate this receptor upon consumption so using chemicals to block 5-HT2A binding locations will nullify its effects.


One study in particular found that when people consumed LSD, they experienced a blurring of boundaries with other people. When the 5-HT2A receptors were blocked using ketanserin, this effect was nullified. “The real tell-tale, or at least the most impressive nature of a mystical experience, is having this notion of oneness where the sense of subject and object break down,” explains Dr. Matthew Jonson, a behavioral science and psychiatry professor at Johns Hopkins University.




Psychedelics are unique in their ability to interrupt otherwise normal processes in the brain – for the best. Because of that, no other substance on earth can match psychedelics’ ability to help humans heal from a myriad of mental and emotional conditions. How that happens is still largely not understood, but we’re all here for it. Let’s see what the upcoming studies on psychedelics and altered states of consciousness have to say.






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