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LSD Effective in Treating Anxiety, Phase II Clinical Trial Shows



A new drug known as MM-120, which is a more pharmacologically optimized form of popular psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), just entered phase II clinical trials for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and other mental health disorders.  

What is LSD? 

LSD is a potent hallucinogenic which belongs to a class of drugs called ergolines (more specifically, LSD is an ergoline-based tryptamine compound), meaning it’s derived from the ergot fungus. Despite this, it still requires a lot of human processing to become LSD, so it’s not considered a natural entheogen like psilocybin or mescaline. LSD was first synthesized by Swiss chemist Albert Hoffman in 1938, but it wasn’t until 1943 that its effects were fully realized when Hoffman accidentally ingested a small amount from his lab.  

As a psychedelic, standard effects include various sensory hallucinations (visual, auditory, sensory, olfactory, etc.), as well as altered perception, feelings, and thoughts. Something that makes LSD unique is the duration and intensity of the hallucinogenic trip, which often ranges from 6 to 12 hours but has been reported to last even longer. This could be due to the way the drug binds to receptors in the brain. 

Like other tryptamines, LSD interacts with serotonin receptors, in particular, receptor 5-HT2AR. Something interesting that happens when LSD binds to 5-HT2AR, is that the receptor closes over the molecule, preventing it from leaving the brain quickly. This could explain why the effects of LSD seem to last after it has left the bloodstream.  

From this point, the serotonin receptor will activate two signaling pathways between the cells, via G-proteins and β-arrestins. LSD function primary through the latter, but that’s not always the case. Overall, ergoline compounds can be a bit mysterious in their processes, because different subgroups can have different effects on serotonin receptors. Add to that, newer research found that ergoline compounds can actually modify the structure of the receptors they interact with, in order to activate different effects.  

MM-120 clinical trials  

MM-120 (lysergide d-tartrate) is a new drug developed by MindMed, a biotech company the focuses on psychedelic-based medications. This drug is a “new and improved” version of LSD that is currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The most recent results from phase II of testing found that the drug candidate, particularly at the 100 µg dose, “demonstrated effectiveness, significantly reducing anxiety symptoms.” 

MindMed logo (source:

Dr. Daniel Karlin, chief medical officer of MindMed, explained the key findings in an interview with Medical News Today: “MindMed conducted this study with participation from 198 patients, all of whom suffered with a primary psychiatric diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), across 20 clinical sites in the United States.” 

“Participants were divided into 5 study arms; each arm received a single dose of a lysergide-based drug candidate, called MM-120 (lysergide d-tartrate), or a placebo,” Dr. Karlin continued. “Among the four groups that received a dose of MM-120, doses were 25, 50, 100, or 200 µg of MM-120. Importantly, no form of additional therapy was given to any participant. The study design evaluated the stand-alone effects of the drug candidate, MM-120,” he added. 

Karlin continued: “The data available to us at this time show that patients experienced meaningful and lasting symptom reduction. Four weeks following a single dose of MM-120, 78% of participants who received either a 100 or 200 µg dose measured as having a clinically significant response to the drug. 50% of participants who received the 100 µg dose were considered to be in clinical remission at Week 4, meaning that the patient no longer suffered from clinically significant symptoms of GAD.”  

Psychedelics for mental health disorders  

Over the years, psychedelics have proven themselves to be one of the most successful treatment options for many different mental health disorders. An overwhelming 82% percent of Americans are in favor of accelerating research on this front, but federal regulations have really been a stick in the wheel of progress here. Given the introspective and sentient nature of psychedelics, it makes sense that using them therapeutically can help a person be more honest, open, and transparent.  

Although discussion of using psychedelics therapeutically is pretty fresh for most of us, many cultures have been utilizing entheogens medicinally and in religious rituals for thousands of years. Even scientists in United States and Europe were conducting research on psychedelic compounds for the treatment of mental illnesses, and it all really began to gain traction throughout the 1940s and 1950s. 

In 1943, Swiss-chemist Albert Hofmann first synthesized lysergic acid diethylamide and by the early 1950s, psychiatrist Humphry Osmond had already pioneered a treatment regimen using LSD to cure alcoholism and other mental disorders; with relative success might I add. Osmond is the one who coined the term ‘psychedelic’, meaning ‘mind manifesting’. He also oversaw author Aldous Huxley’s infamous, therapeutic mescaline trip in 1953.  

Psychedelics have been proven effective in treating various mental health disorders

Numerous psychedelic studies were in the works during that time, but all that research was derailed for social and political reasons when entheogenic compounds were banned at the start of the 1970s. Fast forward a few decades, and we are now beginning to see a growing acceptance of these compounds, especially the naturally-derived ones, and thus, an uptick in research. One of the main areas of interest is how psychedelics can help with mental health disorders such as depression, PTSD, and addiction.  

“The evidence suggests mystical experiences help people gain a new perspective on their issues,” said Matthew Johnson, the Susan Hill Ward professor in psychedelics and consciousness at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. “We think the long-term biological changes will be similar to those with successful psychotherapy. Essentially, the person has learned something about this problematic behavior in their life and changed their life as a result.” 

Final thoughts 

MM-120 is the closest we’ve ever had to a clinically-proven and FDA-approved LSD-based medication. Phase II trials are currently underway, so it’s well on the path to becoming available via prescriptions in select markets, although it could still be some time before we can expect more widespread use of this drug.

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Cannabis Can Help Introverts Be More Social




Introverts have a tough go, extroverts think they need help, bur really they need time and space to adjust and think. Some introverts have anxiety, but not all. Introverts can’t be “fixed” if they go to the right event. The truth is has more nuisance and marijuana might help some. Introverts like more quiet to concentrate, may take time to make decisions, feel comfortable being alone and feel tried after being in a crowd. Some might think of them as shy or quiet, which is true for some but, again, not all.

RELATED: Anxious About Seeing A Therapist? CBD Could Help

Some research has shown introverted people tend to experience higher levels of anxiety. But not every introvert has social anxiety disorder, or social phobia.  Social anxiety disorder is one of the five main types of anxiety disorders. It is significant nervousness, fear, or apprehension in social situations or when thinking about social situations. It is the next level of being worried about social situation. Some good new is cannabis can help introverts be more social.

the average america hasnt made a new friend in 5 years
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Get togethers, big and small, are a way to experience new idea, meet potential friends or partner while engaging with new people. Sometimes it is just a work requirement which there is no escape. In the age of legalization, more introverts are sharing they are using microdosing as a way to manage social outings. Marijuana does not help every introvert and too much may heighten anxiety. Microdosing is 2.5-5mg at a time, which are about a half or quarter of a gummy.

RELATED: Low-THC Strains Of Marijuana A Safer Substitute For Anti-Anxiety Medications

But cannabis doesn’t change the core of a person, rather it pulls them out of their habitual thought. Allowing them to step out of themselves and experience something different or new without too much of a thought. The main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, THC, stimulates the part of your brain which responds to pleasure, like food and sex. Consuming unleashes a chemical called dopamine, which gives you a euphoric, relaxed feeling.

If you plan to try it, go slow and see how it works. If you have social anxiety, you might want to consult with a health professional.


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Can Depression Be Treated By CBD




There is an increased number of people diagnosed with depression, which may mean more people are open to be diagnosed and are seeking some form of treatment. Understanding depression is key. There are two general categories, situational and clinical. While similar, they are not the same. Medically, situational depression is an adjustment disorder with a depressed mood. It often resolves with time, and talking about the problem can ease recovery. Clinical depression, known medically as a “major depressive disorder,” can develop if the individual does not recover. This is a more severe mental health condition. Recognizing the differences between these types of depression is the first step toward getting help. Can depression be treated by CBD?

RELATED: Science Says Medical Marijuana Improves Quality Of Life

If you are struggling with depression, talk to a mental health professional to develop a  treatment plan which might include CBD. Many people using CBD to treat a wide variety of health issues, including depression, anxiety, and stress relief. During the past few years, there has been growing popularity regarding CBD, or cannabidiol.

CBD Capsules Dosage: How Much Should You Take
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CBD is one of the numerous substances isolated from hemp; however, the other primary substance is THC. THC stands for tetrahydrocannabinol and is responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis. Even though a lot of people believe CBD can get you high, this is not the case. CBD does not have any psychoactive effects.

Yes, CBD can be used to treat depression. Many prescription medications treat depression by altering levels of serotonin, which is a neurotransmitter in the brain that causes people to feel happy. There is some evidence that CBD can alter serotonin levels, making it an effective treatment for depression. Even though CBD can be helpful in certain cases, it also has the potential to interfere with other prescription medications. Therefore, if you are taking prescription medications for depression, you need to talk to your doctor ahead of time. This way, you can figure out if CBD will interact with anything you are taking. This could have an impact on the treatment plan.

RELATED: Doctor’s Advice On Using Marijuana To Treat Anxiety And Depression

If you are trying to find CBD that can help you treat depression, you need to choose the right product. In particular, you need to pay attention to whether the product has any THC in it. If you take something with THC, you are going to feel psychoactive effects. Therefore, you need to make sure you do not operate heavy machinery. You should also think about how you want to consume CBD. Gummies tend to be very popular while some prefer to use substances which can be applied to the skin’s surface. Talk to a professional about the type of CBD product and dosage for treatment. This will allow it to be more effective.

Similar to other medical issues, depression can present in a variety of ways. Here are a few common symptoms of depression:

  • Issues falling asleep or staying asleep at night.
  • Changes in their eating habits, either eating significantly more or less.
  • Guilt about things that are not their fault.
  • Changes in an emotional state, leading to major mood swings including rapid mood swings ranging from happiness to sadness and anger.
  • Suicidal thoughts.

RELATED: How CBD Can Treat Symptoms of Depression Right Now

Anyone who suffers from depression deserves to have access to a trained mental health professional who can help them address these concerns. If you are working with a mental health professional to develop a treatment plan for depression, CBD could be right for you.

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Top 10 Reasons People Consume Marijuana




Some of the top reasons people drink alcohol is to relax, for enjoyment, to be part of a group, to avoid physical and/or psychological pain, to experiment and for rebellion.  It has been around for thousands of years used in religious ceremonies, medical treatments, sensual moments and more. But, what are the top 10 reasons people consume marijuana today?  Well, there is some data, and it varies a little by age.

With legalization, all of Canada and over 50% of the US have access to legal marijuana, leading to it becoming more accepted.  Over 85% believe it should be legal in some form and the federal government has acknowledge is has health properties.

RELATED: Science Says Medical Marijuana Improves Quality Of Life

Psychology Today published an article with the information. They took data from four different studies to discover use reasons and published some of the findings. The papers are typically based on secondary research. In other words, they rely on surveys and data collected from other sources which they use to build a “picture” of the average consumer.

Smoking Marijuana
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Age does play a significant role for motivation. College freshmen make different decisions based on their limited life experience and social environment.  The first study looked at possible motivators for entering college students.

“The most frequently reported reasons included enjoyment/fun, conformity,  experimentation, social enhancement, boredom, and relaxation.”

Social acceptance was another high ranking category in this age group and it makes sense. When you’re finally “out of the nest”, you need a conduit to engage with other people. If people are smoking weed, you may feel slightly more inclined to try to “fit in”.

RELATED: 8 Reasons Why College Students Use Cannabis

Post college age is where the majority of consumers exist. Another study looked at this demographic to understand motivations for consuming cannabis. Not surprisingly, there is a far more nuanced list of reasons than the college aged demographic. According to researchers here are the top 10 reasons people consume marijuana.

  1. Relaxation
  2. Feeling good
  3. Medical uses
  4. Inspiration
  5. New ways of looking at things
  6. Coping with depression and anxiety
  7. Forgetting one’s worries
  8. Enjoyment of movies or music
  9. Better sleep
  10. Coping with boredom

Similar to alcohol, the top reason is recreation. But unlike alcohol, the next major reason is medical use, with a significant about of people using it to treat a variety of issues including chronic pain, cancer, seizures, anxiety, and more.

Coping with stress and anxiety is further down on the list, something different from alcohol.  But using substances to escape from long term issues is rather productive.  Like a glass at the end of the day, a gummy or puff from a vape it can just take the edge a rough day.  But doing it too much and indulging to much could be a reason to evaluate the motive.

The study researchers shared “Users are for the most part very self aware of their consumption habits, and alters their behavior when they see it as problematic.”

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