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Where Can You Get F1, F2, and F3 Cannabis Seeds? Wait, What are F1, F2, and F3 Marijuana Seeds?



Breeding new cannabis strains is a complex endeavor, requiring years of hard work and an in-depth understanding of the plant. It’s a thrilling but intimidating domain for many aspiring cultivators. If you’re intrigued by the art of breeding cannabis, chances are you’ve come across terms like F1, F2, F3 strains, etc.


But what does it mean when starting a breeding program with F1 or F2 seeds? What exactly is an F1 strain? These terms can be perplexing initially, but worry not, as this article will demystify the terminologies and guide you toward confidently developing your own sturdy seeds.


The Fundamentals of Genetics

Genetic terms are often mentioned in conversations about cannabis, but what do they signify? When it comes to purchasing cannabis seeds and nurturing them, a basic understanding of the cultivar you’ve selected is all you need. However, if you wish to explore the realm of cannabis breeding, a deeper understanding of the subject is crucial to success. Sure, you can crossbreed some females and hope for the best, but without a solid foundation of knowledge, you risk missing out on the potential rewards that come with it.


Understanding F1, F2, F3 Seeds.

So, what exactly does the letter “F” stand for? It stands for “filial,” a term of Latin origin meaning “the offspring of two parents.” The first generation of parents is referred to as the P1 generation, while their descendants are referred to as the F1 generation.


When you crossbreed two individuals from the F1 generation, you create an F2 generation. Crossbreeding two F2 individuals results in an F3 generation, and so on for F4, F5, and so forth. Breeders use these labels to keep track of the number of ages a crossbreed has undergone to solidify its characteristics. But what do these labels signify when you’re growing your cannabis plants?


Think of it like breeding puppies. You read that right. Cannabis breeding is not so different from breeding our furry friends. The mother and father dogs are the P1 generation, and their litter of puppies is the F1 generation. Like puppies, the offspring may take after one parent more or display a combination of both parents’ traits.


This is generally true for cannabis as well. To better grasp what F1 and F2 generation seeds are, let’s delve into the traditional breeding methods used in the Netherlands.


Cannabis Breeding

In the 1970s, as the first Dutch cannabis seed banks began to focus on breeding, they started with the purest of strains – landrace strains. These strains included Cannabis indica from the Middle Eastern mountains and various Cannabis sativa types from Asia, Africa, and South and Central America. When used in breeding projects, these landrace strains represented the original P1 generation – the product of generations of inbreeding within genetically isolated populations.

If you were lucky enough to have a batch of these landrace seeds, they would grow with similar characteristics to the plants from which they were harvested. These plants had evolved for thousands of years and adapted to their respective regions’ climates, leading to dominant genes for traits that helped them survive. The Dutch utilized these true F1 hybrids by crossing Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica to create strains such as Skunk #1.


F1 Seeds

These F1 hybrids inherited the most prominent genes from their P1 parents due to a genetic phenomenon known as heterosis or hybrid vigor. This results in a stronger, more resilient plant with increased potency and yield compared to its parents.


This first F1 generation is quite consistent in terms of its traits, meaning if you grew seeds of Skunk #1, you could expect all the plants to have highly potent buds that smelled like a skunk. This batch of seeds would be relatively uniform and genetically stable.


F2 Seeds

By crossing a male and female Skunk #1 (an F1 hybrid), you generated an F2 generation. However, when you grow these seeds, you’ll notice that the plants look vastly different. Some are towering, while others are short and sturdy. They even smell differently – some with that classic skunky odor, while others have a sweeter, fruitier scent. So, what’s the deal? Why are these F2 generation plants so vastly diverse?


In these F2 seeds, the genetic diversity explodes as all the traits passed down from the P1 generation are recombined in unique ways. What once was a relatively uniform batch of seeds has now become a diverse mix of plants with varying heights, smells, and ripening times. Some resemble their sativa parent with their tall stature and longer ripening, while others showcase their indica heritage with their short, stocky build and fast flowering. The F2 seeds genuinely showcase the beauty and diversity of genetics.

In the world of cannabis breeding, the F2 generation is where things get exciting and unpredictable. This is when the genes from the parent plants (P1s) are shuffled and recombined to create new and unique phenotypes. However, if you want to grow a uniform crop of buds, this generation may not be the best choice. The inconsistent traits resulting from recombination can lead to a varied yield and appearance. But for those looking to breed their cannabis, the F2 generation is where the possibilities are endless, and recombination magic can lead to creating new and exciting cultivars.



F3 Seeds and Beyond

In our tropical cannabis oasis, let’s take the next step in breeding by selecting the most THC-rich male and female to create F3 seeds. As the generations continue, traits stabilize, leading to a more uniform crop. With each subsequent generation, like F4 and F5, the seed’s stability continues to increase. Selecting the most potent plants from the F3 generation can create a seed that consistently produces high-potency buds. Creating a stable strain may take several generations, but the result is worth it.




For those eager to dive into cannabis breeding, the terminology can seem overwhelming. But don’t let that stop you! There’s an easy solution if you need the luxury of access to landrace genetics. Purchase seeds from reputable breeders with a proven track record of producing high-quality strains. By utilizing their expertise, you can step in the right direction toward creating exceptional cannabis cultivars.






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The Cannabis Industry Now Supports More Than 440,000 Full-Time Jobs




As the 2024 elections draw near, the economic impact of cannabis legalization will likely become a prominent topic in political discourse. With billions in total sales, and millions in tax revenue, the economic benefits of legal cannabis are clear. Beyond the monetary gains, there is a crucial aspect of the cannabis industry that should not be overlooked: job creation.

The 2024 Cannabis Jobs Report by Vangst reveals that over 440,000 jobs have been generated in states with legal cannabis, marking a 5.4% increase in the past year alone. This growth not only signifies economic stability, but it also highlights the industry’s resilience in recovering from past job losses. As new markets like Missouri contribute to this job surge, the report underscores the varying dynamics of job creation across different states.

The economic benefits of legal cannabis

When discussing the economic benefits of fully legalizing cannabis, total retail sales and related tax revenue are usually discussed, and rightfully so. Forbes estimates that the regulated U.S. cannabis industry will be worth $46 billion in 2028, and will surpass alcohol sales in some counties. Even in more remote and less populous states, cannabis has brought in millions in retail sales and tax revenue. In Maine for instance, cannabis sales reached $217 million in 2023. Missouri, despite a population of roughly six million, was the sixth largest market of all the states with legal cannabis in 2023. Missouri topped $1 billion during its first year of recreational sales.

Recovery and growth

One partial reason identified by the Vangst Report for the dramatic increase in 2023 cannabis jobs, is that the cannabis industry experienced a loss of around 10,500 jobs from 2022 to 2023. Not only were industry businesses actively creating new roles for prospective employees by the thousands in 2023, they were recovery from job loses in previous years.

State-by-state analysis

Per the Vangst Report, of the top nine states for cannabis job growth, three saw increases of over 100 percent; and none of those states had legal cannabis before 2018. One of those states, Utah, experienced job growth of around 16 percent, even though it is still a strictly regulated medical-only market. Even more surprisingly, Utah is the only state that could even be considered “West Coast” among the top nine.

Interestingly and worryingly, the eight states to experience the most staggering job losses all legalized cannabis at least a decade ago. On top of the mountain of issues that the California cannabis industry is facing, the Golden State experienced the highest number of job losses in the past year. Neighboring state, Nevada, despite attracting more than 40 million tourists a year, experienced a seven percent drop in its cannabis job numbers. Colorado and Washington — the first two states to legalize recreational cannabis in 2012 — experienced the highest percentage of job loss by far, at 16 and 15 percent respectively.

Future projections

Vangst estimates that anywhere from 7,500 to 45,000 cannabis industry jobs could be created in Ohio in the next few years. Out East, with Maryland recently awarding 75 more retail cannabis licenses, the number of jobs created in that state will almost certainly increase. Overall, the Vangst Report hypothesizes another wildly successful year for cannabis sales:

“In 2023 our legal revenue forecast of $29.2 billion came in at $28.8 billion (98.3% accuracy). This year we’re looking for 9.1% growth, with sales increasing to $31.4 billion. By 2030, we predict this will grow to $67.2 billion as more states legalize and more consumers participate. That growth will create more jobs, more wages, more taxes, and more ancillary support. Despite the challenges, this seems like a good problem to have as an industry.”


As the cannabis industry continues to evolve and expand, its economic contributions are becoming increasingly significant– particularly in terms of job creation and tax revenue. Job growth underscores the industry’s resilience and potential to create economic opportunities, even as older markets face challenges.

As the 2024 elections approach, policymakers and politicians need to recognize the multifaceted economic benefits of cannabis legalization, including job creation.

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Exploring CBD Vape Oil as a Solution




cbd vape oil solutions

Before we explore what we mean by the strongest CBD vape oil in the UK, let us explore the complex nature of pain. People would generally use CBD for long-lasting, difficult-to-treat, chronic pain. Although medications may help in such issues, they fail to provide complete relief and cause many side effects. Hence, chronic pain is best managed by combining lifestyle interventions and natural remedies with the treatment of the underlying cause.

However, chronic pain is very complex. In many cases, even the underlying cause remains unclear. Just take the example of fibromyalgia, which causes body aches, but science does not know exactly what causes the condition. Such generalized body aches and pains may benefit from CBD vape oil use.

Similarly, consider low back pain one of the most common types of chronic pain. It is challenging to treat since it occurs not just due to some spine injury or changes. Such pain may occur due to depression, poor sleep quality, or spasms of local muscles. Again, CBD vape oil may be of great value in such complex pain syndromes.

What is CBD Vape Oil?

Regular CBD vape oil, as one may guess, would have cannabidiol (CBD) mixed into propylene glycol (PG) or, vegetable glycerin (VG), or even both of them. PG and VG produce clouds and play an important role in vape oils. Some CBD vape oils may contain other minor cannabinoids, but not essentially.

Such vapes are quite good for regular use. However, they are not essentially the best CBD vape oils for pain management. Managing pain requires something more potent. Of course, vapes containing CBD isolate are also good, but those with some additional bioactive compounds are even better.

What are Stronger Vape Oils?

If you want the strongest CBD vape oil in the UK, consider a full-spectrum vape pen or vape oil. These vape oils differ from regular vapes in a few ways.

Firstly, stronger vape oils contain THC, the substance known to cause high in large amounts. However, in smaller amounts, it contributes to the pain-killing action of CBD. That is why most clinically approved CBD-based medications contain THC.

Of course, vapes for regular use are quite safe, and they do not cause harm. All legally produced vapes in the UK do not contain THC more than 0.2%. Not only that, a single vape pen or, vape oil pack or cartridge cannot contain more than 1 mg of THC. This amount is sufficient to experience “the entourage effect” but insufficient to cause euphoria or severe side effects.

So, yes, despite THC’s content, these full spectrum cannabis extracts-based vape oils are pretty safe for regular use and managing pain.

A higher CBD concentration is another thing that makes the strongest CBD vape oil in the UK different from the regular one. Quite often, such vapes also have a high amount of CBG. Using CBD and CBG together results in a better vaping experience and pain control without sedation. CBG can counter some of the side effects that might occur due to high CBD doses or THC content in such vapes. Vape oils with THC are known as a THC vape juice, the legal value for THC depends on your location. In UK for example the THC value is 1mg per container for it to be legal and in Germany this value is 3mg per container. 

The next thing that makes these vapes different is their content of terpenes. These incredible natural aromatic compounds are found in many plants, including hemp plants. Plants use these compounds to defend themselves from pests and infections. However, new studies show that terpenes have many health benefits, such as potent anti-inflammatory and anti-infective agents. Moreover, terpenes work in synergy with other cannabinoids.

Finally, remember that some of the strongest CBD vape oils in the UK also contain multiple minor cannabinoids like CBG, CBN, CBC, THCV, CBDV, CBL, CBGV, CBCV, CBLV, CBV, Delta-8-THC, THCP, CBDP, CBT, THCA, CBDA, CBGA, and CBCA. All these minor cannabinoids are in tiny amounts in those CBD vape oils, but they can make a huge difference together.

And, one more thing, many good and strongest CBD vape oils in the UK might not have any PG or VG to produce vapours. Instead, they have good amounts of terpenes. This makes those products more potent, aromatic, and beneficial.

So, as it is said, the devil is in the details. Hence, those looking for good, strong and safe CBD vape oil products in the UK or other countries should pay attention to these minute details. These seemingly minor bioactive compounds play an important role in the overall vaping experience and health benefits of CBD vape oils.

The Science Behind CBD’s Pain-Relieving Properties

What is good about CBD vape oil is that it works in multiple ways. It may start working slowly but may help significantly in the long run. Here are a few ways in which CBD vape oil may help overcome pain:

Interaction with the Endocannabinoid System (ECS)

The ECS is involved in regulating a wide range of physiological processes, including pain perception and immune response. CBD’s interaction with ECS receptors helps to balance these processes, promoting a state of homeostasis. By modulating the activity of the ECS, CBD can help reduce the intensity and duration of pain signals. Additionally, CBD also promotes the production of the bliss molecule anandamide (1).

Reduction of Inflammation

Chronic inflammation is a common underlying cause of pain. CBD has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, which can help alleviate pain associated with conditions such as arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and other inflammatory diseases. By reducing inflammation, CBD can help overcome pain and improve overall comfort (2).

Analgesic Effects

CBD has been found to have direct analgesic effects, which can help reduce pain intensity. Studies suggest that CBD may affect pain pathways in the brain and spinal cord, altering pain perception and providing relief from both acute and chronic pain (3).

Getting Started with CBD Vape Oil for Pain Management

Firstly, one should choose CBD vape oil wisely, which is a product of a high-quality and reputable brand. So, check for the content of THC, CBD, minor cannabinoids, and terpenes in the vape oil. It is always a good idea to go for the strongest CBD vape oil in the UK.

When getting started, always start with the lowest dose. It may mean a few puffs a day. Be patient and remember that CBD vape oil’s effectiveness will increase daily. This is because CBD has a long half-life and stays in the system for a long time. So, it reaches its peak effect after a few days. So, never overdose on CBD vape oil, and be consistent with its use.

Of course, CBD vape oil works best when combined with other pain management strategies like regular exercise and practising mindfulness.

Generally, CBD mixes well with other natural remedies and does not cause harm. Nonetheless, when using CBD vape oil with other natural remedies and medications, one should closely monitor for side effects.

The Bottom Line

CBD is now among the most popular natural pain management remedies. There are many ways of using CBD. Some prefer CBD sublingual oil, others gummies, while some love vaping CBD. How one uses CBD is less important. More important is to use strong and high-quality products with proven safety records. Finally, remember that consistent CBD use is highly important in the long run when using it to manage chronic pain.


  1. Kesner AJ, Lovinger DM. Cannabinoids, Endocannabinoids and Sleep. Front Mol Neurosci. 2020 Jul 22;13:125.

  2. Henshaw FR, Dewsbury LS, Lim CK, Steiner GZ. The Effects of Cannabinoids on Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines: A Systematic Review of In Vivo Studies. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2021 Jun;6(3):177–95.

  3. Kulesza B, Mazurek M, Kurzepa J. Can cannabidiol have an analgesic effect? Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2024 Feb;38(1):33–41.





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Scientists Got Fish High on Psychedelics to Explain How They Work




psychedelic fish

Psychedelics are all the rage – not just in North America, but all over the world. Over the past few years, there has been a spotlight on psychedelics in general because of its proven as well as promising therapeutic applications.

Psychedelics have been shown to be effective in treating so many common ailments that we just can’t seem to treat as well with pharmaceutical drugs. These include PTSD, OCD, depression, anxiety, and addiction to name a few. That said, there’s still so little we know about psychedelics and how they work in the human body; there are many different psychedelics out there to study, too.


So researchers decided to get fish high on psychedelics to help us understand a little more.


In a recent study, whose results were published in Molecular Psychiatry, Dr. Takashi Kawashima led a team of researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science to understand the behavior of psychedelics in the human body by exposing larval zebrafish to it, and how they influence different cells in the brain to provide its therapeutic benefits. The researchers utilized various scientific tools such as image analysis, optical microscopy, and even artificial intelligence.


Dr. Kawashima, who is a neuroscience researcher as well as a medical doctor, was particularly interested in understanding how psychedelics affect psychiatric or mental health conditions. It’s afflictions of the mind, after all, that psychedelics has been shown to be extremely effective in treating – and where conventional pharmaceutical drugs have failed. In particular, would psychedelics be able to replace selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s) or even work better than them, but without the side effects?


With the findings, he hopes to contribute to treatments of mood-related disorders.

He adds that it isn’t ideal to experiment with psychedelics on humans because of the drug’s hallucinogenic properties. In addition, he acknowledges the challenges of doing so; it may be futile since psychedelics work with such deep-seated circuits in the brain, making it hard to analyze. “Zebrafish larvae, on the other hand, are transparent, making it possible to monitor drugs’ impact on specific brain cells and to correlate this with behavior,” Dr. Kawashima said. Zebrafish are also excellent test subjects since they share approximately 70% of their DNA with humans, and because of their social nature.

For the trials, the zebrafish were soaked in a psilocybin solution for four hours. Afterwards, they were made to participate in a series of behavioral experiment designed by Kawashima, which started off with the fish diving into a pool of water with vibrant patterns on the glass bottom. The fish were then exposed to a sudden decrease in water temperature, meant to incite stress on purpose so that the scientists could compare the behaviors to fish who weren’t exposed to psychedelics. “We wanted to see how psychedelics affect the fish’s stress response,” said Kawashima. “We found that, similar to what can be true to humans, when you’re heading into a stressful situation, taking a long bath can help.”


They found that the fish soaked in psilocybin were more likely to venture into the water tank’s darker areas even after being exposed to stress, compared to the fish who weren’t exposed to psilocybin. They even swam around faster than the sober fish, suggesting that psilocybin may act as a stimulant. Furthermore, they found that the psilocybin reduced anxiety after exposure to stress.


“SSRIs elevate serotonin levels throughout the brain,” explains Dr. Dotan Braun, a scientist and psychiatrist who worked with Dr. Kawashima’s laboratory. “Psychedelics, in contrast, affect serotonin receptors via a different, much faster mechanism and they appear to act on brain areas in a more targeted manner. A better understanding of their mechanism of action and a mapping of their influence on the brain may lead to more efficient drugs, with fewer side effects.”


Kawashima also explained that through optical imaging, they were able to observe neural activity in the drugged fish which were similar to the activity seen in other laboratories when studying mammalian brains that have been exposed to psychedelic drugs. “This indicates that psilocybin exerts its influence on behavior through neural mechanisms in deep areas of the brain that have been conserved in evolution and are also found in mammals, including humans,” Kawashima said.


Other Fish Studies


Back in 2022, researchers also exposed zebrafish to psychedelics for a study; this time, it was used to understand how microdosing benefits humans.


The study’s author, Trevor James Hamilton of MacEwan University, writes about the study and shares that while it’s common to expose zebrafish to chronic administration of drugs, which entails putting them in a drug solution for long periods of time, they attempted to do things differently for this study by dosing the fish accurately on a regular basis to mimic exact exposure times. They accomplished this by adding a tool into the tank which moved fish from their housing into the dosing tank, enabling them more accurate dosing.


The zebrafish were either given moderate doses of ethanol daily or binge doses for 3 weeks. They followed it up with another experiment of lower doses, then again used the same testing model and nicotine. They found that acute dosing reduced anxiety-like behavior, while repeated dosing resulted in more anxiety-like behaviors especially during withdrawals. According to Hamilton, this can also be observed in humans, such as those who use a cigarette or one alcoholic drink to address anxiety. Meanwhile, taking excessive amounts of either results in behavior that is exhibited during withdrawals.

Afterwards, they repeated the study using LSD on the zebrafish then utilized behavioral neuroscience tests to study behavior. They found that there was no change on behavior after 10 days of repeated exposure, which suggests the lack of addictive potential. This validates the lack of addictive qualities of psychedelics especially LSD, which means that there is no reason for them to be restricted by the government.




While we need more information and studies on the impact of psychedelics on humans, fish studies provide terrific insight on how psychedelics can affect or physiology. These studies are fantastic tools that can help us have a deeper understanding of how hallucinogenic drugs help us.





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