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Uruguay Working Toward Cannabis Tourist Industry to Fight Black Market



A country like Uruguay is interesting to watch because it’s had a recreational cannabis market the longest. Following what goes on there, can elucidate general problems in the industry, as well as show how the country deals with those issues. When it comes to the legal industry vs the non-legal industry, Uruguay is still looking to set up a cannabis tourist market; to help ease the issues of its hard-to-rid black market.

Uruguay and cannabis legalization

Years before Canada or any US state, Uruguay became the first country in the world to officially legalize the recreational use of cannabis. This despite its Schedule I placement in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs; a 1961 global treaty that defines the international legality of different compounds. This didn’t sit well with the UN, Uruguay went forward with it anyway.

The idea was first floated by the reining coalition of the time, the Broad Front. From the get-go it proposed having a government run system. On December 10th, 2013, the country’s legislature officially passed its bill, making for a system where the government sells weed directly to its people via pharmacies. The industry didn’t start right away though.

Like it happens much of the time, the initial bill passage didn’t come with a complete set of regulations, and it took more than three years to work these out. The guidelines for the industry were only approved in 2017, at which point the federally regulated sales industry opened. This means, though the legalization is 10 years old this year, the actual sales market is now six. This is still the longest running recreational market, as Canada did not legalize until the following year.

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Some of the regulations involved include: only adults 18 and above can legally access cannabis; adults can grow up to six plants per year, or up to 480 grams worth; sales are done through pharmacies; buyers must be registered; there’s a 40-gram sales max per person per month; all advertising and promotional marketing is banned; and smoking clubs of 15-45 members can be established, that can grow up to 99 plants in a year.

As of 2020 – three years into its market – Uruguay had approximately 41,000 registered users; over 8,000 home-cultivators; 158 cannabis clubs, with total participants numbering 5,000; no access to high THC strains (limit 9%); and as of February of 2020, a standing price of approximately $1.23 per gram.

This last point is incredibly important as it shows how painfully inflated cannabis prices are in other countries like the US, where the government is not in charge of pricing. When we talk about overproduction and prices plummeting, we should remember that in the US, the prices are still well above what Uruguay charges.

Why did Uruguay do this? Besides the understanding that cannabis isn’t dangerous, that it has positive medical and recreational benefits, and that people are going to do it regardless of laws against it; Uruguay had one other reason: it’s huge cannabis black market. Black markets aren’t liked by governments because they’re untaxed by nature, and when considering an industry as large as the cannabis industry, that’s a lot of money lost.

Beyond that, black markets often cause a lot of violence, though how much of that violence comes from within the industry itself, and how much from government interference, varies between locations. Though there’s plenty of competition between operators in a black market, I often wonder how much less destructive we’d view these industries, if not for the bloody government wars waged against them. That’s an article for another time; but the thing to understand here, is that Uruguay wanted to funnel the black market activity into a government-regulated legal market.

Black market issues in Uruguay cannabis industry

Now it’s 2023 and Uruguay has had an operative market for six years. Some things have changed since the 2020 numbers. There are now at least 249 social clubs, consisting of about 7,166 members. There are 28 approved pharmacies in the country, and about 49,600 registered buyers. Approximately 14,000 are registered for home-cultivation. The price in the pharmacies is about $10 per five grams, or about $2/gram. This is still well under what we see as bottom-basement pricing taking over in the US now.

The max THC level is increased to 15% as of December 2022, with the offering of a new ‘gamma’ variety, as per internationalcbc. Prior to this it was 9%. And while it’s reported that pharmacies might adopt a 4th variety by the end of 2023, we don’t know anything about what that means, or if it indicates an even higher THC amount. Since 2019, Uruguay has seen about $20 million enter its economy from medical cannabis exports.

The thing is, not everyone loves this system, and there are problems that lead many people to continue buying from the black market. For one thing, Uruguay doesn’t give a lot of options, and limiting THC is not optimal for many people. The black market still provides more and better options than the regulated system. It also doesn’t require signing up, or a fingerprint scan.

On top of that, many social clubs have waiting lists, meaning people simply don’t have access. As laws only permit from 15-45 people, this isn’t because they’re slow to go through applications; but simply because they can’t break their legal limit, leaving plenty of people who want access, out in the cold. And it’s not like pharmacy buying is a last minute thing. It requires being signed-up, and making an appointment in advance.

Tourist market in Uruguay could help minimize black market
Tourist market in Uruguay could help minimize black market

A Montevideo social club treasurer and technical manager who goes by the nickname Pulla, put it well when he said of the clubs, that having a waiting list “is an indicator that demand is not satisfied.” He continued, “Many more people want to access the legal market who still cannot.” The reality is, even regardless of limited options in pharmacies; limited access is the bigger killer if the idea is to bring people away from a black market system that already functions well.

According to Uruguay’s cannabis regulatory agency the IRCCA, approximately 27% of residents buy cannabis through legal vendors, which means the grand majority is still a black market industry. Most of the black market weed isn’t even trafficked into the country, so much as sold by non-registered local growers.

About 30% of the illegal market comes from Paraguay, and consists mainly of lower-priced plants called “Paraguayans.” This is according to ORT University professor and Monitor Cannabis project researcher, Marcos Baudean. It indicates that nearly all of the imported products on the black market, are lower-priced than what’s offered legally.

Uruguay and a cannabis tourist market

In Uruguay, the idea of a cannabis tourist market isn’t new, and has already come up several times. Now, in a January 6th ladiaria interview with Juan Ignacio Tastás, the IRCCA executive director, a little more information is given, along with what other improvements might drive up sales. According to Tastás, in response to why the new higher-THC gamma cannabis variety began selling so well after introduction in December 2022:

“I think it responds to the fact that there is a failure in our system to adequately supply what the public that consumes marijuana was requesting.” He continued, “The idea is to continue generating new varieties, there is a variety that we are planning to launch towards the end of next year, and that surely has an average THC level of 15%, that is, it would be a little higher and in the line with what can be obtained in general in the clubs.”

And what of the problem that exists if a person first chooses one of the three: cultivating, buying from a pharmacy, or going to a club; and then decides on a different method of procurement? Apparently there are major access issues when choosing more than one. Says Tastás of this:

“It is also difficult to go from one system to another: if you are a self-cultivator and intend to buy at the pharmacy or go to a club, there are restrictions. These are issues that would be worthwhile for the political sector to reflect on if they continue to be functional.” He goes on to remind: “It must be remembered that if there is a consumer who does not obtain it through the legal channel, he ends up going through the illegal channel.”

And as for a Uruguay cannabis tourist market? The interviewer asked Tastás what he thought of a current bill under investigation at the Tourism Commission of the Chamber of Deputies, which would allow sales to foreigners. Apparently its spoken that social clubs might be the providers of this cannabis. When asked about this, the executive director answered:

Will Uruguay allow a cannabis tourist market?
Will Uruguay allow a cannabis tourist market?

“If it is intended to include clubs as a supply element, the origin of the concept should be reversed. Our concern is the analysis that is done to the products.” He continues that “more than 70% of people in the legal market are registered in pharmacies and it is a much easier place or way of access than the club.”

Unfortunately, not anything more was said on the tourism topic in the interview. Nor any further information given as to progress on possible legislation. Though internationalcbc speaks of pharmacies opening a 4th option to tourists (a different strain), and though Tastás indicated this as well; we don’t know anything more specific, or if Uruguay will open this option as part of a cannabis tourist market. Internationalcbc thinks it might.

One possible reason the conversation has been going on so long, is that current president Luis Lacalle Pou isn’t onboard with cannabis legalization in general, and therefore not a proponent of moving forward. However, according to the vice-president of the tourism commission in congress, Eduardo Antonini, who is in the opposition, “It’s a simple formula: if tourism increases, spending increases, employment increases and investments increase. Models like that in California demonstrate the potential.”


Will Uruguay have a cannabis tourist market soon? Probably. Let’s be honest, it’s getting more difficult out there, and if Uruguay really wants to do everything it can to fight its black market and increase sales, it’ll open its market to foreigners. And given how forward thinking the country has been in terms of weed so far, it’ll probably happen pretty soon.

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Regulating Cannabis like Fish – Cannabis | Weed | Marijuana




Regulating cannabis like fish? Excuse me, what? According to Leah Heise, the cannabis industry can learn much from commercial fishing.

An accomplished cannabis exec, Leah’s been the CAO of Ascend Wellness Holdings, the CEO of Women Grow, CXO of 4Front Ventures and President of Chesapeake Integrated Health Institute.

While at Ascend, Leah focused on growing the business from 73 employees to more than 1300 in less than 18 months, taking the company from $19M in revenue in 2019 to a $1.6B market cap in 2021.

Leah is also a medical cannabis patient, having discovered the herb after being hospitalized over 35 times for pancreatitis.

Leah Heise is a cannabis expert. Her expertise is unparalleled, unlike the so-called “experts” in the media who spew drug war propaganda.

So when she says the cannabis industry has much to learn from commercial fisheries, our ears perk up.

Regulating cannabis like fish? Say what?

Regulating Cannabis from Stigma 

Regulating Cannabis like Fish
Leah Heise

Having experience in the regulatory landscape, Leah knows what’s working and what’s doomed to fail. And unfortunately, most legal states have been regulating cannabis from a position of stigma.

“We do everything by piecemeal, by litigation. It’s very costly to the system and there’s just a better, more streamlined way to do it,” says Leah. “And I think that potentially regulating it similar to a commercial fishing industry may be the way to do it.”

Of course, Leah points out that there are other options, and this is just one of many ideas. But, she says, “These regulators need to understand the things they are regulating.”

“They’re doing it from a place of stigma and lack of education,” Leah says. “We have to turn back one hundred years of stigma and propaganda.”

Whether it’s racial stigma or false beliefs that cannabis will rot your brain, Leah emphasizes education. From scientific papers proving cannabis’ efficacy to patient stories to studies that associate legal cannabis with fewer cases of domestic abuse and alcoholism.

“The industry and the plant need a rebrand,” says Leah. “It’s not Cheech and Chong. It’s everyone; it’s diverse. Anybody could be using this, from your great-grandmother to your child, depending on what they have. It’s not going to make their brains die or reduce IQ.”

Regulators Need Education

Simply put, the public (and many regulators) are uneducated on cannabis. Drug warriors amplify its alleged harms while marginalizing its medical and therapeutic benefits.

But how would regulating cannabis like fish help? Leah admits that if the feds get involved, a strong regulatory body needs to be created.

“Or just let the states do it,” she says. “We don’t necessarily need another layer on top.”

But suppose the federal government does step in and institute national cannabis regulations. What can we learn from the commercial fishing industry?

Regulating Cannabis like Fish

What can the cannabis industry learn from commercial fishing? How does one regulate cannabis like fish?

“Fisheries is a highly regulated industry,” says Leah. “Because the government’s trying to balance the interests of the environmental groups with the interest of the commercial fishing industry.”

Yes, they are separate products, but both are natural and come from the Earth. Likewise, generations of people work in the industry, whether it’s multiple generations of fishermen (and women). Or the legacy farmers in the cannabis industry (especially in black and brown communities).

With the commercial fishing industry, there’s the problem of overfishing. “In an effort to save the planet, and the fisheries themselves, the federal government has stepped in,” says Leah.

And she sees opportunities for the cannabis industry and its regulators to learn from the commercial fishing industry.

Commercial fishing regulators don’t regulate from a place of stigma. “I haven’t seen a single state,” says Leah, referring to legal cannabis states, “where there’s not a massive lawsuit. And even with Schedule III, there’s going to be lawsuits.”

Learning from the Commercial Fishing Industry

Leah prefers a more comprehensive way of regulating cannabis, which borrows from the successes of the commercial fishing industry.

“They design things called fishery management plans,” she says. “Scientists in the government will come forward and say, ‘okay we’re starting to see Atlantic sea scallops start to collapse. We’re seeing a decline in the number of new pollock. And we need to come up with a fishery management plan to work this.’”

Leah says the commercial fishing industry has councils with different stakeholders, from environmental groups to commercial industries to recreational groups.

“They come together to regulate themselves,” says Leah. “It speeds up the process and really eliminates a lot of the issues in terms of getting sued, because stakeholders at least feel like they have a voice.”

“Nobody walks away happy,” Leah adds. “Which is kind of what happens with any real decent negotation, right? Everybody’s giving a little.”

Leah thinks having a board of stakeholders would prevent things like canopy caps or taxing inside the supply chain. Things that ultimately hurt the industry and only empower illicit markets.

The problem, says Leah, is that current cannabis regulators “aren’t holistically looking to see what the impacts are,” of the various regulations they’ve instituted.

Regulating Cannabis like Fish – Unintended Consequences?

Regulating Cannabis like Fish

Is there any state already doing this? What are the odds D.C. will create cannabis regulations that embody the principles of the commercial fishing industry?

One of the biggest problems, says Leah, is the lack of money on the enforcement side. From her regulator days, Leah recalls:

We were handed often times very dense regulations to enforce. But we weren’t given the money that we needed to be given to it, to hire the people, and train the people we needed to actually enforce those regulations.

The result is cannabis operators openly flaunting the rules because paying the fines is sometimes cheaper than observing the regulations.

There’s also debate on how heavy cannabis regulations should be. Should we regulate it like alcohol? Or should we consider cannabis a vegetable no more dangerous than a carrot?

“I think that the polarization that exists in this industry exists in the country,” says Leah, so there’s no easy answer.

Unintended Consequences

Bill Gates & Justin Trudeau

But one thing to watch out for is the unintended consequences of regulation. Leah recalls visiting Africa, particularly Botswana, about a year ago.

“The Gates Foundation had contributed billions of dollars worth of mosquito nets,” Leah recalls.

They thought that giving people mosquito nets would eliminate malaria. But what they didn’t understand is that [the Bostwanans] needed food. So what the people did was they used the nets to fish with. But the nets were covered with pesticides. It killed off all the fish. And you still have malaria, and you have no food, and it’s because there wasn’t really a holistic decision in that instance. [The Gates Foundation] wasn’t informed enough to answer what the real primary need was.

Unintended consequences are an unavoidable fact of life. In Canada, for example, the government legalized cannabis from a position of stigma and propaganda. The result is a thriving black market catering to consumer demands the legal market can’t fulfil.

With that in mind, we asked Leah how likely, on a scale of one to ten, would the United States legalize and regulate according to rational and holistic principles? Will authorities regulate cannabis like fish?

If ten is the ideal and one is stigma and propaganda, what’s the verdict?

“I think it’s going to be less than 5,” says Leah. And like the situation in Canada or the more restricted US legal states, the consequences of regulating from stigma suggest a robust illicit market.

“You can decide to go the legal route or you can decide to go the illegal route,” says Leah. “But you’re not going to make it go away.”

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SAFER Banking Act Passes Senate Committee – Cannabis | Weed | Marijuana




The SAFER Banking Act has passed a critical Senate Committee hearing with a vote of 14-9. The renamed bipartisan bill would allow banks to work with cannabis businesses without penalties from the federal government.

The U.S. cannabis industry has long been waiting for SAFER Banking to pass the Senate. Alongside 280E tax burdens, the lack of access to essential banking services has unnecessarily handicapped the industry.

With SAFER Banking passing the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs, this marks the first time Senate members have voted in favour of cannabis banking reform. The House of Representatives has voted for the bill seven times before.

But now what? What’s the next step in reforming cannabis banking in the United States?

SAFER Banking Act Passes Senate Committee

SAFER Banking Senate Committee

While the SAFER Banking Act passing a Senate Committee is undoubtedly good news, it’s not the end of this lengthy saga.

After passing the Senate Committee, the SAFER Banking Act will head off to the Senate and the House for more debates, amendments, and votes. Assuming this goes smoothly, the bill will eventually land on the President’s desk, where everyone expects him to sign it.

The recent Senate Committee vote clears the path for the bill to make it to the Senate floor. Passing the bill would mean cannabis businesses in legal states would no longer have to operate as cash-only enterprises. Handling massive amounts of money in cash is inconvenient but also dangerous. Cannabis operators have been vulnerable to theft and fraud.

Hence, industry stakeholders applaud the Senate Committee for decisively voting for SAFER Banking.

 “[It’s] a historic step towards final passage of a critical policy building block for the cannabis industry,” said Minority Cannabis Business Association (MCBA) President Kaliko Castille.

MCBA has been committed to ensuring that the House and Senate not only pass the SAFER Banking Act but also contain provisions to aid minority entrepreneurs who have been the primary targets of the drug war.

“The committee’s approval of the SAFER Banking Act gives hope to thousands of compliant, tax-paying businesses desperately trying to access the basic financial services other businesses take for granted,” said National Cannabis Industry Association CEO Aaron Smith. “This uniquely bipartisan legislation has the potential to save lives and help small businesses; it’s time for Congress to get it to the president’s desk without further delay.”

What Next?

SAFER Banking Senate Committee

The Senate Committee’s passing of the SAFER Banking Act may have been influenced by recent cannabis news coming from Washington, D.C.

Earlier this month, the Department of Health and Human Services officially recommended that the DEA move cannabis from Schedule I to Schedule III in the federal Controlled Substances Act.

That change wouldn’t affect banking, but it would relieve operators of the burdensome 280E tax. The potential rescheduling gave a shot in the arm to pot stocks. Perhaps it also lit a fire under the butts of American Senators.

SAFER Banking would give the U.S. cannabis industry better access to financial services, including depository services, electronic payments, lending, and other access to capital. 

Even Canadian cannabis companies will benefit from banking reform in the U.S. Currently, Canadian banks take the same drug-war mentality despite the herb’s legal status north of the 49th. Canada’s oligarch banks have a significant presence in the American economy that they don’t want to compromise.

Advocates are hopeful the Senate will eventually pass the SAFER Banking Act, as it has bipartisan support among Republicans and Democrats.

The United States has legal cannabis in 23 states, the District of Columbia and two territories. Every state has a medical cannabis program except Idaho, Wyoming, Kansas, and South Carolina.

Three in four Americans live in a legal cannabis state. At this point, federal cannabis legalization seems less of a question of “if” and more of a matter of when. 

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Kratom Industry Requesting Some Government Regulation  




While you would think most industries would jump at the chance to operate in an unregulated market, where they can do whatever they want, it seems that model doesn’t work for everyone. Companies who are trying to be honest and actually have some integrity in their products are being overshadowed by an influx of fake, adulterated, and sometimes dangerous products that are infiltrating the market, and casting a bad light on the industry as whole.  

As a result, the American Kratom Association along with several individual companies are requesting help in the form of government regulation to work on getting sketchy products off the shelves. 

What is Kratom? 

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a flowering evergreen tree related to the coffee plant. It is indigenous to Southeast Asia but has been gaining popularity in western culture for its stimulating and pain-relieving effects. Kratom is used both recreationally and therapeutically, and just like cannabis, it’s incredibly controversial. Quite a few studies have noted the pharmaceutical potential of Kratom. Kratom is made up of dozens of alkaloids, compounds which are known to hold medicinal value and have been studied independently for decades.  

Alkaloids are a class of basic, naturally occurring organic compounds that contain at least one nitrogen atom. They are produced by a large variety of organisms including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals and can be purified from crude extracts of these organisms by acid-base extraction, or solvent extractions followed by silica-gel column chromatography. Alkaloids have a wide range of pharmacological activities and there is a lot of existing research to back this up.  

The most abundant alkaloid in Kratom is mitragynine, and for decades it was also believed to be the most potent. Then in 2002, a group of Japanese researchers found a variant called 7-hydronitragynine. This minor compound is extremely potent, more powerful than morphine, and despite being found only in trace amounts, it’s responsible for most of kratom’s pain-fighting properties. Further research has determined that both alkaloids act as partial opioid receptor agonists by activating the supraspinal mu- and delta- opioid receptors.  

Kratom effects vary greatly based on the dosage. Low doses result in stimulant effects, whereas high doses produce sedative, opiate-like effects. Typically, the leaves are crushed then smoked, brewed in a tea, or used in capsules. It’s still used widely in Southeast Asia, from where it originates, and there it is referred to as thang, kakuam, thom, ketum, and biak. In the US, it’s simply known as Kratom, and while it’s still a bit of fringe product, it is growing in popularity here as well.  

Is kratom legal? 

The short answer, it’s complicated. Although it’s technically legal at the federal level, they way it’s usually marketed is illegal because the FDA has not approved kratom for any specific use. So selling as a random smoke shop item is fine, but selling it and saying it can help with pain and boost energy is not allowed.  

Kratom leaves are often ground into a fine powder and used in capsules

Regardless, it can be found everywhere from convenience stores and gas stations, wellness stores, smoke shops, and the world wide web, so as much as the FDA wants to say it has no therapeutic value, that’s not stopping people from using it. As such, the US Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) has been trying to add kratom the Schedule I list of controlled substances (like cannabis which they say is dangerous, but not cocaine which is safer as a Schedule II); albeit, unsuccessfully.  

Their position has been met with resistance from industry stakeholders, researchers, and consumers alike. In August 2016, the DEA attempted to temporarily reclassify kratom, and due to public demonstrations, petitions, and calls by Congress to overrule their decision, they changed their tune and retracted the reclassification in October 2016, only 2 months later.  

Now, individual states are beginning to make their own laws regarding kratom use. Similar to how states have been granted the authority to regulate cannabis use, despite it going against federal regulations, states are taking similar actions to either protect or prohibit kratom.  

We also have the Kratom Consumer Protection Act (KCPA), a bill drafted by the American Kratom Association, that aims to progressively regulate the US kratom industry. The act is currently under review by several state governments, and the Kratom association is attempting to get more states to adopt better kratom policies. Although this act has been in the works for years, it has not been covered extensively by the mainstream media.  

The bill addresses all topics relating to the growing kratom industry, such as: cultivation, manufacture, distribution, medical benefits, sale, possession, use, age limits, testing, labeling, fines and penalties. Overall, the main purpose of the Kratom Consumer Protection Act is to protect customers from shady companies, and ensure that kratom producers and vendors are only supplying safe, high-quality products that are free of pesticides, heavy metals, fungus, and other contaminants. 

As of now, kratom is expressly banned in the following states: Alabama, Arkansas, Indiana, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Wisconsin. Certain cities also prohibit the sale, possession and use of kratom: Oceanside, CA, San Diego, CA, Sarasota, FL, Jerseyville, IL, and Union County, MS. 

In a change of pace, the industry requests help from the government  

Because the industry is so unregulated, and downright confusing, business owners are facing an onslaught of import alerts, warning letters, and product seizures. All this legal action has those in the kratom industry who are trying to remain honest, crying out for help in the form of government regulation.  

In the most recent news, this summer, a jury awarded the family of Florida woman $11 million in a wrongful death suit. According to court documents, the woman died from “acute mitragynine intoxication,” which is one of the primary compounds found in kratom. The 39-year-old woman, who had been using kratom for pain management, collapsed and died while cooking breakfast one morning in June 2021. It was determined that the kratom she was using, from Grow LLC, was the cause, although I couldn’t find anywhere if it was related to mislabeling, improper dosing, tainted product, or user error. 

Many products in the kratom industry are contaminated

Regardless, the case emphasized to the public that kratom can be dangerous, and that it “produces classic opioid-like effects at high concentrations, such as sedation, nausea, vomiting, addiction, and difficulty breathing, which may be fatal.” 

Stories like this have consumers rightfully skeptical, so in response, the American Kratom Association issued a statement requesting the following:  

  1. Urges the FDA to immediately publish product manufacturing standards for kratom products that are sold to consumers and encourage the removal of kratom products that do not contain adequate labeling with recommended serving sizes, product ingredients, and appropriate warnings on conditions of use.  
  2. Until the FDA implements a set of standards to protect consumers, the AKA advises kratom consumers not to purchase or consume kratom products that:  
    • Have not been certified by an independent third-party lab to be free of dangerous contaminants or contain adulterants that could be dangerous to consume.  
    • Are offered for sale from a vendor that markets its product with illegal therapeutic claims.  
    • Do not contain the name of the product distributor so that a consumer can file an adverse event report if required.  
    • Are delivered in unprofessional packaging, such as zip-close bags, or that have handwritten product information.

“Recent reports of product liability awards for irresponsibly manufactured or marketed kratom products are the direct result of the FDA’s failure to regulate the kratom marketplace and, in some cases, the exploitive behavior of trial attorneys who do nothing to compel the FDA to act responsibly,” said Mac Haddow, the AKA’s Senior Fellow on Public Policy.

“The AKA supports congressional action to compel the FDA to develop and implement a set of standards for the manufacturing and marketing of kratom products to protect consumers in the United States,” he added.  

Final thoughts on kratom regulation

Kratom regulation is a confusing topic. It’s similar to the early days of CBD when the government was issuing warning letters to companies who claimed cannabidiol can be used to treat various health conditions. If the government steps in, it’s possible that kratom will become less accessible to consumers, but hopefully it means that the products they do find are safer and more effective.

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