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Can Cannabis Help Reduce Obesity Because Everyone at My Gym Smells Like Weed?



cannabis exercise and obesity

Cannabis, the Best Workout Bud-ie: Unveiling the Connection Between Marijuana and Exercise


In recent years, the perception of cannabis has been shifting from that of a stigmatized substance to a versatile aid in various aspects of life, including exercise.


A new study conducted by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder sheds light on the fascinating relationship between marijuana and the exercise experience. The findings suggest that consuming cannabis before a run can enhance the overall exercise experience, making it more enjoyable and potentially reducing pain for regular cannabis users.


The study involved 49 runners who were asked to rate various aspects of their runs, both with and without the use of cannabis.


Published in the journal Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, the study revealed that participants reported feeling “less negative affect, greater feelings of positive affect, tranquility, enjoyment, and dissociation, and more runner’s high symptoms” during their cannabis-fueled runs compared to non-cannabis runs.


One intriguing aspect of the findings was that participants ran slightly slower after consuming marijuana, with a difference of 31 seconds slower per mile, although the researchers noted that this difference was not statistically significant.


This implies that while cannabis may not necessarily enhance speed or performance, it could contribute to a more positive and pleasurable exercise experience, which is equally valuable for regular cannabis users.


Enjoying exercise is crucial to motivating people to stay active and maintain a healthy lifestyle. When exercise is enjoyable, it becomes a rewarding experience that individuals are more likely to pursue regularly. Unfortunately, the United States is facing a significant obesity epidemic, with nearly 42% of adults classified as obese. Surprisingly, despite the negative stereotypes of the “lazy stoner,” research suggests that cannabis use might unknowingly contribute to making the US fitter. Studies have shown that marijuana users have lower obesity rates than non-users, challenging long-standing misconceptions and highlighting the potential positive impact of cannabis on physical activity.


A reduction in pain post workout!


The reported reduction in pain levels after cannabis-fueled runs is an essential finding, especially for individuals seeking natural alternatives to manage pain during physical activities. The perceived exertion, or the effort perceived by the runners during their runs, did not significantly differ between cannabis and non-cannabis runs, suggesting that cannabis may not impact the perceived effort during exercise.


Experiencing muscle soreness after a workout is a common phenomenon known as Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS). DOMS typically occurs 24 to 72 hours after intense physical activity or trying a new exercise routine. It is a result of microscopic damage to muscle fibers, accompanied by inflammation and the release of chemicals that sensitize pain receptors.


One way in which cannabis may help reduce post-workout pain is by its potential anti-inflammatory properties. Cannabinoids, such as CBD (cannabidiol), have been studied for their anti-inflammatory effects, which could aid in reducing the inflammation and swelling associated with DOMS. By mitigating the inflammatory response, cannabis might alleviate some of the pain and discomfort experienced after a strenuous workout.


Moreover, cannabis may also interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system to suppress pain signals. The endocannabinoid system is involved in regulating pain perception, and cannabinoids found in cannabis can bind to the body’s cannabinoid receptors to modulate pain signaling pathways. THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), the psychoactive compound in cannabis, has well-known pain-relieving properties and is used medically for chronic pain conditions.


Not to mention, cannabis promotes relaxation and reduces anxiety, which can indirectly contribute to pain relief.


When an individual feels more relaxed and less anxious, their perception of pain may be dampened. This could potentially enhance the overall post-workout recovery experience, as stress and anxiety can exacerbate feelings of soreness and discomfort. Additionally, cannabis may be move the body from the sympathetic to the parasympathetic mode. In other words, it activates the “rest and digest” mechanisms of the body which may be important when it comes to a speedy post workout recovery.


It is important to note that the study primarily focused on regular cannabis users, and further research is needed to explore the effects of acute cannabis use on exercise experiences among occasional or non-cannabis users. Diverse populations and settings should be studied to establish the long-term benefits and potential harms associated with this behavior.


A body of evidence emerging


The findings of this study align with previous research on the relationship between cannabis use and exercise. A 2019 study highlighted that individuals who used marijuana to enhance their workout routines tended to engage in a healthier amount of exercise. Moreover, older people who consume cannabis were found to be more likely to participate in physical activity, according to a study published in 2020.


These studies challenge long-standing stereotypes and misconceptions about cannabis users and their level of physical activity. The notion that marijuana consumption leads to lethargy and a lack of motivation has been debunked, with evidence suggesting the contrary. Frequent cannabis users were even found to be more physically active compared to non-users in a study published in 2021.


As researchers continue to explore the potential benefits of cannabis use, the medical applications of the plant have also been the subject of significant investigation. The use of medical marijuana has been associated with significant improvements in the quality of life for individuals suffering from conditions like chronic pain and insomnia, with these effects sustaining over time, according to a study published this year by the American Medical Association (AMA).


The positive effects of cannabis use on the exercise experience can be a game-changer for those seeking alternative methods to enhance their workouts and manage pain during physical activities.


However, it is essential to approach cannabis use for exercise with mindfulness and responsibility. As with any substance, individual reactions can vary, and understanding one’s own tolerance and limits is crucial to ensuring a safe and enjoyable exercise experience.


So, how can individuals harness the potential benefits of cannabis for their workouts responsibly?


1. Know Your Strains: Different cannabis strains can have varying effects on individuals. When using cannabis before exercise, opt for strains that are known for their energizing and uplifting properties rather than those that induce sedation.


2. Start Slow: If you are new to combining cannabis with exercise, start with a low dose and gradually increase it as you become more comfortable with the effects.


3. Listen to Your Body: Pay attention to how your body responds to cannabis use during exercise. If you feel any discomfort or adverse effects, adjust your consumption accordingly.


4. Stay Hydrated: Cannabis can cause dry mouth, so be sure to drink plenty of water before, during, and after your workout.


5. Choose Safe Environments: For outdoor activities, choose familiar and safe locations to ensure an enjoyable and stress-free experience.


6. Avoid High-Intensity Workouts: While cannabis can enhance the overall exercise experience, it may not be suitable for high-intensity workouts that require intense focus and coordination. Of course, if you take note of #3 on the list, you should be fine in this area as well.


7. Educate Others: Share your experiences responsibly with others, and encourage open and informed conversations about cannabis use in the context of exercise. Especially, let them know what works for you, what doesn’t, whether it’s best smoking before or after.


The sticky bottom line


cannabis has shown promising potential as the perfect “bud-ie” for working out, enhancing the exercise experience, and potentially encouraging more people to engage in physical activity. The studies and anecdotal evidence suggest that cannabis use before or during exercise can lead to a more enjoyable and less painful workout, making it a valuable tool for fitness enthusiasts seeking to optimize their training routines.


The implications of such a discovery go beyond just the individual benefits of pain relief and improved workout experience. If cannabis can indeed motivate more people to embrace an active lifestyle, the potential benefits for public health could be substantial. Obesity remains a pressing health concern in the United States, with approximately 42.4% of adults considered obese as of 2021. This epidemic is associated with a significant economic burden on taxpayers, costing the nation hundreds of billions of dollars annually in healthcare expenses, lost productivity, and related factors.


By harnessing the potential of cannabis to inspire more individuals to exercise regularly, we may see a decrease in obesity rates, resulting in fewer cases of obesity-related chronic conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and certain cancers. This reduction in obesity-related health issues could translate into substantial healthcare cost savings for the government and taxpayers.


Moreover, as we strive to improve public health and promote healthier living, the potential impact on human lives cannot be understated. Thousands of deaths each year are linked to obesity-related conditions, and empowering individuals to lead healthier lifestyles through cannabis-inspired exercise could significantly contribute to saving lives.





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How Did You Mess Up Your Cannabis Subchapter S Election?




The internet is littered with writings on the relative merits of corporate forms and tax elections for cannabis businesses. Even the best of these articles are as dull as ditchwater, because the topic is tax. Most of the authors mention subchapter S taxation at some point, and the showier ones may even dredge up cannabis tax court opinions on the topic. This post doesn’t get into any of that. Instead, it asks the simple question: how did you mess up your cannabis subchapter S election?

What’s a subchapter S election?

Feel free to skip this section, which is boring, if you already know what an S election is, how it works, etc. If you don’t, I’ll cover this at a very broad, borderline irresponsible level– just to get us through. Please note that the same rules apply here for cannabis businesses as non-cannabis businesses.

An S election is just a business’s determination to be taxed according to a certain part of the Internal Revenue Code. We’re talking about subchapter S here (open to corporations and LLCs), as opposed to subchapter C (also for corporations and LLCs), or subchapter K (partnerships and LLCs only).

An S corporation passes its income, losses, deductions and credits to shareholders for federal tax purposes. Unlike a C corp, the S corp doesn’t pay federal income tax. It is a “pass through.” Note that every S corp begins its life as a C corp, and every S corp once filed something with the IRS called a Form 2553 to gain its new chapter status.

An LLC can also elect to be taxed under subchapter S. Unlike the converting C corp, the converting LLC files two forms: a Form 8832, then the 2553. People are sometimes surprised that an LLC can do this, because LLCs already pass their income, losses, etc., through to owners for federal tax purposes. But, under subchapter S, owners can often take earnings out of the business without paying employment taxes.

There are plenty of other reasons both corporations and LLCs elect to be taxed under subchapter S, either at formation or at some point during their lifecycles. I can tell you that cannabis retailers should stay away from subchapter S as a general rule. Cannabis growers and processors taxed under subchapter S are rare birds as well, but sometimes it makes sense. More on that below.

How did you mess up your cannabis subchapter S election?

I’ve had the displeasure of asking this question to clients a half dozen times over the years. That’s a very small percentage of clients at this point, but it tends to be memorable. Below are three ways this can happen.

  1. Miscommunication

There’s a reason that CPAs usually ask to see a company’s governance documents before filing a tax election or preparing a return. The CPA needs to know if what they’re advising or being asked to do makes sense. Often, the ownership or structure of a company may be incompatible with subchapter S taxation. For example, a stock ledger may show non-U.S. shareholders or nonviable shareholder trusts; or an LLC operating agreement may delineate multiple classes of units.

On two occasions, I’ve designed waterfalls for cannabis LLCs only to learn those LLCs ended up making subchapter S elections. The owner agreements and tax filings were fundamentally at odds in each case. One of those busted elections came to light in litigation; the other came up when somebody left the company. Neither was satisfactorily “fixed” to my knowledge.

  1. Missed deadlines

Various deadlines must be observed when electing subchapter S status. It can get pretty complicated for corporations; less so for LLCs. In my experience, founders often miss these deadlines because there is so much going on when starting a company. Late filing relief is often available, but this involves triage, extra paperwork and ultimately, expense. It’s best to calendar any tax filing deadlines upon incorporating or organizing, run down requisite tax advice, and timely file.

  1. You actually made the election

Sometimes, you can mess up an S election by… timely filing an S election. Again, most cannabis businesses are not taxed under subchapter S for a reason.

In the case of a cannabis retailer, subchapter C is almost always preferred, because this prevents non-deductible expenses resulting from IRC § 280E from passing through to owners. Staying in subchapter C avoids the devastating situation of taxable income to owners on paper, but no real earnings.

Other plant-touching cannabis businesses may decline to make an S election for any number of reasons. Most commonly, a business will be capitalized disproportionately or just “differently” by co-owners (e.g., cash versus services; lots of cash versus a little cash; equity versus debt). These businesses may wish to allocate income in ways that simply can’t work under Subchapter S. Yet, they’ve made a subchapter S election with no appreciation of constraints.

You don’t have to mess up your cannabis subchapter S election

Tax is complex, but it isn’t always complicated. Roadmaps abound in the cannabis business space. If you’re a cannabis business owner looking at subchapter S, the best advice is to: 1) screen your ownership structure; 2) sketch out capital outlays and cash flows, and the way you want money to move through the business; and 3) talk to your legal and tax advisers so that everyone is on the same page. It’s no fun to mess up a Subchapter S election! But it’s also not hard to avoid.

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Let Cannabis Legalization Be Done State-By-State with No Federal Legalization?




Rupublicans marijuana plans

Republican senators, including the lead GOP sponsor of a bipartisan marijuana banking bill, are gearing up to introduce new legislation designed to thwart any federal legalization of marijuana by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) without explicit approval from Congress.


Senators Leading the Charge


The fight against potential federal marijuana legalization without congressional permission is being led by Senators Cynthia Lummis of Wyoming (R-WY) and Steve Daines of Montana (R-MT). Regarding cannabis policy, Senator Lummis has continuously defended states’ rights, firmly believing that state-by-state decisions on cannabis legalization should prevail over federal directives. She is committed to preserving state autonomy in cannabis policy, evidenced by her consistent opposition to federal legalization.


Senator Steve Daines, representing Montana, has been a prominent figure in advocating for cannabis banking reform. He plays a central role in the upcoming legislation and sponsors the SAFER Act, which addresses the pressing issue of banking access for state-licensed cannabis businesses. Daines’s dual involvement highlights his dedication to creating a safer and more legitimate financial environment for the cannabis industry while navigating the complexities of federal cannabis policy.


Senators Lummis and Daines represent a growing faction of Republicans who support states’ rights and resist excessive federal intervention in cannabis matters. Their leadership in this legislative endeavor is poised to shape the trajectory of marijuana policy in the United States, focusing on preserving states’ authority to determine their cannabis laws.


The Legislative Landscape and Implications


14 House and Senate Republicans have urged the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to oppose the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) recommendation that marijuana be rescheduled. Senators Daines and Lummis were noticeably absent from the letter’s list of signatories.


Whether restrictions on reclassifying marijuana within the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) or a specific mention of the de-scheduling of marijuana from the CSA are included in this upcoming legislation, as well as how it will prohibit the FDA from potentially legalizing marijuana, are all unknowns. In most cases, “legalization” refers to excluding marijuana from the CSA.


While the FDA has endorsed a cannabis-derived CBD medication and a synthetic THC drug, it generally refrains from endorsing holistic or plant-based remedies. If the HHS suggested rescheduling marijuana, it would remain federally prohibited, except for medical use with a doctor’s prescription.


Efforts to obtain further details regarding this impending bill were made, with a spokesperson for Senator Daines directing inquiries to Senator Lummis’s office. However, immediate responses from the latter’s representatives were unavailable.


This announcement was appended to the statements about the SAFER Banking Act introduced on Wednesday. Senator Daines emphasised provisions within the SAFER Banking Act that he helped secure during bipartisan negotiations, designed to shield all legal enterprises from what he perceives as the “woke agenda” of the left.


While the primary focus of the SAFER Banking Act revolves around granting state-licensed cannabis businesses access to conventional financial services, Senators Daines and Lummis highlighted aspects of the legislation intended to prevent federal regulators from taking discriminatory enforcement actions against other sectors, such as the firearms industry.


Senator Lummis contended that Wyoming energy companies frequently face threats from “woke” Environmental and Social Governance (ESG) initiatives, potentially jeopardising their access to banking services and loans. The SAFER Banking Act prevents federal bank regulators from compelling banks or credit unions to terminate accounts based on reputation risk, safeguarding energy firms and gun manufacturers from left-wing challenges to their operations.


Senator Daines’s focus on the bill’s banking regulations provisions and his sponsorship of FDA and marijuana legalization legalization  could suggest an attempt to distance himself from the broader marijuana reform movement, notwithstanding his state’s 2020 ballot approval of adult-use legalization.


The SAFER Banking Act is expected to have strong bipartisan support in committee and on the floor, according to individuals like Sherrod Brown, the chairman of the Senate Banking Committee and Chuck Schumer, the majority leader of the Senate (both Democrats). When the legislation reaches the Senate floor, Schumer plans to attach amendments to enable state-level cannabis expungements and support firearms rights for medicinal cannabis patients; Senator Daines has previously expressed openness to this strategy.


On the House side, a well-known Democrat proposed a plan to legalize, tax, and regulate marijuana on a federal level. The bill also included provisions for expunging earlier convictions for cannabis usage.


The Stance of the FDA and Challenges Ahead


Historical FDA Caution: Over the years, the FDA has maintained a cautious stance regarding cannabis, especially its natural, plant-based form. While the agency has approved specific cannabis-derived medicines, it has hesitated to endorse broader cannabis legalization or rescheduling. Instead, the FDA’s primary focus has been on ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, resulting in a reluctance to embrace holistic or plant-based remedies like marijuana.


Federal Prohibition and HHS Advice: The problem has become more complicated due to the recent HHS (Health and Human Services) suggestion to reschedule marijuana. Acceptance of this recommendation could result in modifications to the Controlled Substances Act’s (CSA) federal classification of marijuana. To be clear, marijuana will likely continue to be federally illegal for recreational use even if it is rescheduled, except for medical uses that a doctor has approved.


Challenges and Uncertainties: The impending legislation championed by Senators Lummis and Daines faces numerous challenges and unresolved issues. Key questions remain, including whether the bill will specifically address rescheduling or de-scheduling marijuana within the CSA and how it intends to prevent the FDA from pursuing marijuana legalization without Congress’s explicit approval. The term “legalization” typically implies removing marijuana from the CSA, a significant step toward federal acceptance. The lack of detailed information about the bill’s mechanics leaves critical aspects, such as preserving states’ rights in shaping cannabis laws, uncertain. In this intricate landscape, the FDA’s regulatory stance and adaptability to evolving perceptions of marijuana will play a pivotal role. While Senators Lummis and Daines advocate for legislative measures to safeguard state autonomy, scrutiny of the FDA’s approach to marijuana will continue among stakeholders in the cannabis industry and beyond. As the legislative process unfolds, the complexities and challenges of federal cannabis policy reform will come to the forefront, ultimately shaping the future of marijuana legalization in the United States.


Bottom Line


As Senators Lummis and Daines lead the charge against potential federal marijuana legalization without congressional approval, the role of the FDA looms large in this unfolding legislative battle. While historical caution from the FDA persists, recent recommendations from the HHS add complexity to the cannabis landscape.


This legislative effort faces various difficulties, including uncertainties about the bill’s details and how it will protect states’ rights. As the FDA’s regulatory stance continues to be a significant component, the future of marijuana legalization in the United States will be formed by a complicated interplay of federal and state authorities and changing attitudes toward cannabis. The road ahead promises to be both complicated and transformational, with big changes in federal cannabis legislation possible.





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What is Hypersynchrony? – New Study Looks at What is Going on in Your Brain When You are Tripping Balls




hypersychrony psychedelics

Ah. Altered states of consciousness. For those of us who have experienced it in our lifetime, it’s definitely one of the best things about being human.


These altered states of consciousness simply refer to times when we have mental states that are not ordinary; there are moments when our sense of time and space is distorted due to pleasure, psychedelics, meditation, sexual intercourse, and much more. These days, there has been a lot of interest going on in the world of psychedelics, given that psilocybin as well as ketamine, LSD, and other hallucinogenic drugs are having a second heyday.


Altered states of consciousness can also be called many different things. To other people, these are mystical experiences, a form of ego dissolution, a trip down the rabbit hole, an awakening, a metaphysical experience… the list goes on. But what exactly goes on in the brain?


Despite the growing body of studies and clinical trials done, we still know very little about psychedelics and how they induce altered states of consciousness, which are oftentimes a precursor to healing, therapeutic experiences, and even recreation. Generally speaking, altered states induce significant changes in cognition, time and space perception, and even visions. That said, the altered states of consciousness brought about by psychedelic use are so varied from one person to another, that it can hardly be standardized or pinned down.


This has piqued the curiosity of researchers for a long time.


And recently, a group of investigators had some success in identifying what occurs in the brain when we consume psychedelics, which leads to altered states of consciousness. This groundbreaking study was conducted by researchers from Sweden’s Lund University.


For this study, researchers used live rats as well as a technique they developed to measure electrical signals taken from 128 various parts of the rats’ brains all at the same time. This was done by implanting arrays with microelectrodes and wires into different regions of the brain. The arrays were critical in allowing the researchers to measure local field potentials (LFPs), which are electrical signals taken from thousands of neurons.


Additionally, various psychoactive substances were injected into the rats. This included ketamine, LSD, phencyclidine, and DOI.


“Consciousness is one of those fundamental questions that have always fascinated me. I think that psychedelics is a great tool to study the neural basis of consciousness in laboratory animals, since we share most of the same neural ‘hardware’ with other mammals,” explains Par Halje, study author. Halje is also a neurophysiology researcher and cognitive scientist at Lund University.


They found some fascinating results, most especially the fact that high-frequency oscillations were taking place at the same time in different parts of the brain. They recorded signals from different brain regions that were almost in sync, though delays occurred that were under a millisecond. The one-of-a-kind synchronization was a surprising discovery for the researchers.


“We assumed that a single brain structure was generating the waves and that it spread to other locations,” Halje told Psypost. “But instead, we saw that the waves went up and down almost simultaneously in all parts of the brain where we could detect them – a phenomenon called phase synchronization.” This meant that even though the brain cells were acting differently when exposed to different psychedelic drugs such as ketamine and LSD, it had an impact in the greater activity affecting brain communication, resulting in quick and synchronized signals.


“One might think that a strong wave starts somewhere, which then spreads to other parts of the brain,” explains Halje. “But instead, we see that the neurons’ activity synchronises itself in a special way – the waves in the brain go up and down essentially simultaneously in all parts of the brain where we are able to take measurements,” says Halje. “Likely, this hyper-synchrony has major effects on the integration of information across neuronal systems and we propose that it is a key contributor to changes in perception and cognition during psychedelic drug use,” write the authors.


Other Studies


This area of study is still so mysterious, but the theories we have today are no less as interesting than the phenomenon itself.


Aside from the Lund University study, there have been other efforts to understand what goes on when we get high on psychedelic drugs and go into non-normal mental states. The exact process that occurs when our consciousness gets transported to another dimension may not be clearly understood yet, but a lot of it has to do with 5-HT2A, a serotonin receptor. Many psychedelics including psilocybin, ayahuasca, and LSD activate this receptor upon consumption so using chemicals to block 5-HT2A binding locations will nullify its effects.


One study in particular found that when people consumed LSD, they experienced a blurring of boundaries with other people. When the 5-HT2A receptors were blocked using ketanserin, this effect was nullified. “The real tell-tale, or at least the most impressive nature of a mystical experience, is having this notion of oneness where the sense of subject and object break down,” explains Dr. Matthew Jonson, a behavioral science and psychiatry professor at Johns Hopkins University.




Psychedelics are unique in their ability to interrupt otherwise normal processes in the brain – for the best. Because of that, no other substance on earth can match psychedelics’ ability to help humans heal from a myriad of mental and emotional conditions. How that happens is still largely not understood, but we’re all here for it. Let’s see what the upcoming studies on psychedelics and altered states of consciousness have to say.






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